Based on the specimens and ecological data collected during the past years, the present paper describes the general biological characters of the fish Spinibarbus yunnanensis. S. yunnanensis is distinguished from related species by the numbers of lateral line scales, scales below lateral line, predorsal scales and vertebrae. It prefers to live in the mid-lower zone of coastal water. The adults feed mainly on macrophytes and the larvae on filamentous algae. The growth rate of S.yunnanensis is higher than its related species. The parents breed from May to August, laying eggs on sandy and rocky substrate where the water flows slowly. The absolute fecundities of individuals 274.0-400.0mm SL are 8800-13632 oocytes. The surveying data also indicate that s.yunenensis was extinct in Yilong Lake and endangered in Yangzonghai Lake and Xingyun Lake. Now only a small population of S.yunnanensis survives in Fuxian Lake.