Volume 40 Issue 3
May  2019
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Wei Li, Ling-Yun Luo, Xun Yang, Yong He, Bin Lian, Chao-Hua Qu, Qing-Yuan Wu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Peng Xie. Depressed female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) display a higher second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio. Zoological Research, 2019, 40(3): 219-225. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2019.022
Citation: Wei Li, Ling-Yun Luo, Xun Yang, Yong He, Bin Lian, Chao-Hua Qu, Qing-Yuan Wu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Peng Xie. Depressed female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) display a higher second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio. Zoological Research, 2019, 40(3): 219-225. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2019.022

Depressed female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) display a higher second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2019.022
Funds:  This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (816 01207) and National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (2017YFA 0505700)
More Information
  • Corresponding author: Peng Xie
  • Received Date: 2018-07-07
  • Publish Date: 2019-05-18
  • This research aimed to provide evidence of a relationship between digit ratio and depression status in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). In stable cynomolgus monkey social groups, we selected 15 depressed monkeys based on depressive-like behavioral criteria and 16 normal control monkeys. All animals were video recorded for two weeks, with the duration and frequency of the core depressive behaviors and 58 other behaviors in 12 behavioral categories then evaluated via behavioral analysis. Finger lengths from the right and left forelimb hands of both groups were measured by X-ray imaging. Finger length and digit ratio comparisons between the two groups were conducted using Student’s t-test. In terms of the duration of each behavior, significant differences emerged in “Huddling” and five other behavioral categories, including Ingestive, Amicable, Parental, Locomotive, and Resting. In addition to the above five behavioral categories, we found that depressed monkeys spent less time in parental and rubbing ‘ and forth behaviors than the control group. Furthermore, the 4th fingers were significantly longer in the left and right hands in the control group relative to the depressed monkeys. The second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio in the left and right forelimb hands was significantly lower in the control group than that in the depressed group. Our findings revealed significant differences in finger lengths and digit ratios between depressed monkeys and healthy controls, which concords with our view that relatively high fetal testosterone exposure may be a protective factor against developing depressive symptoms (or that low fetal testosterone exposure is a risk factor).
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