Ming MA, Tong ZHANG, Feng XU. Numbers and distribution of the Black-necked Crane(Grus nigricollis)in the southern Xinjiang. Zoological Research, 2014, 35(S1): 105-110. doi: 10.11813/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.s1.0105
Citation: Ming MA, Tong ZHANG, Feng XU. Numbers and distribution of the Black-necked Crane(Grus nigricollis)in the southern Xinjiang. Zoological Research, 2014, 35(S1): 105-110. doi: 10.11813/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.s1.0105

Numbers and distribution of the Black-necked Crane(Grus nigricollis)in the southern Xinjiang

doi: 10.11813/j.issn.2095-8137.2014.s1.0105
  • Received Date: 2014-09-10
  • Rev Recd Date: 2014-11-27
  • Publish Date: 2014-12-08
  • The Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is the endemic species of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and the population in Xinjiang is mainly distributed in the regions of Pamir, Karakorum, Kunlun and Altun Mountains. A survey on the distribution, population size, population fluctuation, behavior character, breeding ecology and conservation strategy was conducted from 2010 to 2013. Population size and distribution in this area was investigated with direct count methods. At a total of 25 sampling sites, 164 observations were made during this period. We found 173 Black-necked Cranes on the wetlands of Wuzunxiaoer, Tiemulike, Yusup Aleksei, Yaziquan, Qimantag, Tula Ranch and so on. 126 individuals were recorded in the Yixiekepati wetlands (N37°15'-37°23',E90°11'-90°20', elevation 3,903 m), which is the largest population we have observed in this area. Combined with the previous records, we concluded that there are about 220-260 individuals of Black-necked Cranes in this region. The population size was estimated of 300-380 individuals in the whole Xinjiang. The numbers of family members varied from one to four, and those four types of families accounted for 5.9%, 60.3%, 29.4% and 4.4% of the records respectively. Before October, the cranes moved in single families, and they did not join other family groups. Cranes gathered in the middle of October and the highest numbers appeared on 29 October. All of the cranes migrated out of this area by 6 November. In addition, we found Eurasian Crane (Grus grus), Demoiselle Crane (Anthropoides virgo), Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus), Greylag Goose (Anser anser) and Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) in this area. According to our field work and preliminary interviews, we found that because of environmental changes, the increase of livestock husbandry, mining and eco-tourism, the population of Black-necked Cranes has faced threats in recent years. Increasing livestock husbandry, mining and eco-tourism activities potentially threaten Black-necked Cranes with poaching and egg-collection. In response to these threats, the protection and management work of the reserve administration needs to be strengthened, and herders, miners, tourist and reserve staff all need to be educated about the protected status of cranes. At the same time, a long-term monitoring program should be established to strengthen the conservation and management of Black-necked Cranes in the reserve. The number of juveniles that we observed (16.5%, n=158) can be used as a baseline to monitor future fecundity and population trends.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Gao XY. 1987. The birds in East Kunlun-Altun Mountains regions. Arid Zone Research, (4): 1-10.[高行宜. 1987. 东昆仑——阿尔金山地区的鸟类. 干旱区研究, (4): 1-10.]
    Kong DJ, Yang XJ, Zhong XY, Dao MB, Zhu Y. 2008. Diurnal time budget and behavior rhythm of wintering Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) at Dashanbao in Yunnan. Zoological Research, 29(2): 195-202.[孔德军, 杨晓君, 钟兴耀, 道美标, 朱勇. 2008. 云南大山包黑颈鹤日间越冬时间分配和活动节律. 动物学研究, 29(2): 195-202.]
    Li DH. 1986. The distribution of Black-necked Crane in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. In: Crane Research and Conservation in China. Harbin: Heilongjiang Education Press, 137-140. [李德浩. 1986. 黑颈鹤在青藏高原上的分布. 见: 中国鹤类研究(文集). 哈尔滨: 黑龙江教育出版社, 137-140.]
    Li FS, Bishop MA. 1999. Ecology and conservation of Black-necked Cranes Grus nigricollis. In: Adams NJ, Slotow RH, Proceedings of the 22 International Ornithological Congress. Johannesburg: BirdLife South Africa, 2533-2543.
    Li FS, Yang F. 2003. Population numbers and distribution of Black-necked Cranes (Grus nigricollis) in the Yungui Gaoyuan Plateau. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 38(3):43-46.[李凤山, 杨芳. 2003. 云贵高原黑颈鹤的种群数量和分布. 动物学杂志, 38(3): 43-46.]
    Li FS, Yang XJ, Yang F. 2005. Status and Conservation of Black-necked Cranes on the Yunnan and Guizhou Plateau, People's Republic of China. Kunming: Yunnan National Publishing House.[李凤山, 杨晓君, 杨芳. 2005. 云贵高原黑颈鹤的现状及保护. 昆明: 云南民族出版社.]
    Li WD, Zhang X, Zhang HB, Ma M, Hai Y, Yuan GY, Su JP, Hu HY, Jiang W, Shi L. 2013. Comprehensive scientific investigation of Arjinshan National Nature Reserve in Xinjiang. Urumqi: Xinjiang Science and Technology Press, 203-206. [李维东, 张翔, 张会斌, 马鸣, 海鹰, 袁国映, 苏建平, 胡红英, 蒋卫, 时磊. 2013. 新疆阿尔金山国家级自然保护区综合科学考察. 乌鲁木齐: 新疆科学技术出版社, 203-206.]
    Li ZM, Li FS. 2005. Black-necked Crane Study. Shanghai: Shanghai Technological and Educational Press.[李筑眉, 李凤山. 2005. 黑颈鹤研究. 上海: 上海科技教育出版社.]
    Long Q. 2009. Black-necked Cranes in Longbaotan. Chaidamu Development Research, (4): 29-31. [龙泉. 2009. 隆宝湖的黑颈鹤. 柴达木开发研究, (4): 29-31.]
    Ma M, Li WD, Zhang HB. 2011. Distribution and population state of Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis in Lop Nur and Kunlun Mts., Southern Xinjiang. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 46(3): 64-68.[马鸣, 李维东, 张会斌. 2011. 黑颈鹤在新疆罗布泊和昆仑山分布及种群状况. 动物学杂志, 46(3): 64-68.]
    Ma M. 2003. Does any Black-necked Crane exist at Qinghai Longbaotan National Nature Reserve? China Crane News, 7(1): 13-15.[马鸣. 2003. 青海隆宝滩国家级自然保护区还有黑颈鹤吗. 中国鹤类通讯, 7(1): 13-15.] Ma M. 2011. A Checklist on the Distribution of the Birds in Xinjiang. Beijing: Science Press, 39-40.[马鸣. 2011. 新疆鸟类分布名录. 北京: 科学出版社, 39-40.]
    National Forestry Bureau. 2009. Resource Survey on the Key Animals in China. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, 197-206.[国家林业局. 2009. 中国重点陆生野生动物资源调查. 北京: 中国林业出版社, 197-206.]
    Ran JH, Liu SY, Zeng ZY, Shao KQ, Lin Q, Zhang M. 1999. The population and distribution of Black-necked Cranes (Grus nigricollis) in Xiaman Nature Reserve in Sichuan. Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology, 5(1): 40-44.[冉江洪, 刘少英, 曾宗永, 邵开清, 林强, 张明. 1999. 四川辖曼自然保护区黑颈鹤 (Grus Nigricollis) 的数量及分布. 应用与环境生物学报, 5(1): 40-44.]
    Tian FL. 1999. Plateau bird—black-necked Crane. Environmental Protection of Xinjiang, 21(4): 63.[田风玲. 1999. 高原神鸟——黑颈鹤. 新疆环境保护, 21(4): 63.]
    Tsamchue DM, Yang L, Li JC, Yangjaen DG. 2008. Current status of conservation and research on Black-necked Cranes in Tibet. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 27(3): 449-453.[仓决卓玛, 杨乐, 李建川, 央金卓嘎. 2008. 西藏黑颈鹤的保护与研究现状. 四川动物, 27(3): 449-453.]
    Wang QS, Ma M, Gao YR. 2006. Fauna Sinica. Aves Vol.5, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes and Lariformes. Beijing: Science Press.[王岐山, 马鸣, 高育仁. 2006. 中国动物志. 鸟纲. 第五卷, 鹤形目、鸻形目、鸥形目. 北京: 科学出版社.]
    Xu F, Ma M, Yang WK, D Blank, Ding P, Zhang T. 2013. Vigilance in Black-necked Cranes: effects of predation vulnerability and flock size. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 125(1): 208-212.
    Zhang F, Zhang HB. 1991. Preliminary report of Black-necked Crane in Yixiekepati Lakeside, Altun Mountains. Yunnan Geographic Environment Research, 3(2):92-93.[张帆, 张会斌. 1991. 阿尔金山依协克帕提湖畔黑颈鹤观察初报. 云南地理环境研究, 3(2): 92-93.]
    Zhang T, Ma M, Ding P, Xu F, Buzzard PJ. 2012. Status and behavior of the Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in the Altun Mountain Reserve, Xinjiang. Chinese Birds, 3(3): 199-205.
    Zhang T, Ma M, Zhang X, Zhang HB, Liu M, Ding P, Xu F. 2012. Distribution and population size of Black-necked Cranes (Grus nigricollis) in autumn in east Kunlun and Altun Mountains, Xinjiang. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 47(6): 31-35. [张同, 马鸣, 张翔, 张会斌, 刘鸣, 丁鹏, 徐峰. 2012. 东昆仑——阿尔金山地区黑颈鹤种群分布与秋季数量变化. 动物学杂志, 47(6): 31-35.]
    Zhang YM, Zhang GL. 2000. A study on the population ecology of Black-necked Crane at Gahai, Gansu Province. In: Studies on Chinese Ornithology. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, 190-193. [张迎梅, 张贵林. 2000. 黑颈鹤在甘肃尕海的种群数量动态和食性分析. 见: 中国鸟类学研究——第四届海峡两岸鸟类学术研讨会论文集. 北京: 中国林业出版社, 190-193.]
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (791) PDF downloads(1031) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint