1. Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Diseases Mechanisms, and Laboratory of Molecular Immunopharmacology,Kunming Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China; 2. Graduate School, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; 3. Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
The anti-HIV-1 research history of ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) can be traced back to McGrath's work in 1989. They are important representatives, which guide further research, of natural anti-HIV products or leading compounds. The enzymatic activities and anti-HIV-1 actions of RIPs were introduced initially in this paper, followed by a detailed discussion about the potential anti-HIV-1 mechanisms. The discussion mainly focuses on the relationships with anti-HIV-1 enzymatic activities, induction of apoptosis of HIV-1 infected cells and responding cell signaling, the production of reactive oxygen species, the HIV-1 integrase inhibition effect. The anti-HIV-1 structure-functional relationship of RIPs and the structural modifications were also covered. Systemic and intensive studies of RIPs' antiviral actions will increase their possibility as clinical anti-HIV/AIDS agents.