Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Jia-Fei Shen, Qiu-Ming Chen, Feng-Wei Zhang, Quratulain Hanif, Bi-Zhi Huang, Ning-Bo Chen, Kai-Xing Qu, Jing-Xi Zhan, Hong Chen, Yu Jiang, Chu-Zhao Lei. Genome-wide association study identifies quantitative trait loci affecting cattle temperament. Zoological Research, 2022, 43(1): 14-25. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.176
Citation: Jia-Fei Shen, Qiu-Ming Chen, Feng-Wei Zhang, Quratulain Hanif, Bi-Zhi Huang, Ning-Bo Chen, Kai-Xing Qu, Jing-Xi Zhan, Hong Chen, Yu Jiang, Chu-Zhao Lei. Genome-wide association study identifies quantitative trait loci affecting cattle temperament. Zoological Research, 2022, 43(1): 14-25. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.176

Genome-wide association study identifies quantitative trait loci affecting cattle temperament

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.176
#Authors contributed equally to this work
Funds:  This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31872317) and China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA (CARS-37)
More Information
  • Cattle temperament is an interesting trait due to its correlation with production efficiency, labor safety, and animal welfare. To date, however, its genetic basis is not clearly understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study for a series of temperament traits in cattle, assessed with via open field and novel object tests, using autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from the whole-genome sequence. We identified 37 and 29 genome-wide significant loci in the open field and novel object tests, respectively. Gene set analysis revealed the most significant pathway was the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway, which may be essential for emotional control in cattle. Analysis of the expression levels of 18 tissue-specific genes based on transcriptomic data showed enrichment in the brain, with some candidate genes involved in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Based on principal component analysis, the first principal component explained the largest variance in the open field and novel object test data, and the most significant loci were assigned to SORCS3 and SESTD1, respectively. Our findings should help facilitate cattle breeding for sound temperament by pyramiding favorable alleles to further improve cattle production.
  • #Authors contributed equally to this work
  • loading
  • [1]
    Arnold SE, Han LY, Moberg PJ, Turetsky BI, Gur RE, Trojanowski JQ, et al. 2001. Dysregulation of olfactory receptor neuron lineage in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(9): 829−835. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.58.9.829
    Bartlett DJ, Rae C, Thompson CH, Byth K, Joffe DA, Enright T, et al. 2004. Hippocampal area metabolites relate to severity and cognitive function in obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Medicine, 5(6): 593−596. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2004.08.004
    Bevins RA, Besheer J. 2006. Object recognition in rats and mice: a one-trial non-matching-to-sample learning task to study 'recognition memory'. Nature Protocols, 1(3): 1306−1311. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2006.205
    Borjabad A, Volsky DJ. 2012. Common transcriptional signatures in brain tissue from patients with hiv-associated neurocognitive disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 7(4): 914−926. doi: 10.1007/s11481-012-9409-5
    Bouwman AC, Daetwyler HD, Chamberlain AJ, Ponce CH, Sargolzaei M, Schenkel FS, et al. 2018. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for cattle stature identifies common genes that regulate body size in mammals. Nature Genetics, 50(3): 362−367. doi: 10.1038/s41588-018-0056-5
    Breiderhoff T, Christiansen GB, Pallesen LT, Vaegter C, Nykjaer A, Holm MM, et al. 2013. Sortilin-related receptor SORCS3 is a postsynaptic modulator of synaptic depression and fear extinction. PLoS One, 8(9): e75006. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075006
    Breuer K, Hemsworth PH, Barnett JL, Matthews LR, Coleman GJ. 2000. Behavioural response to humans and the productivity of commercial dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 66(4): 273−288. doi: 10.1016/S0168-1591(99)00097-0
    Browning SR, Browning BL. 2007. Rapid and accurate haplotype phasing and missing-data inference for whole-genome association studies by use of localized haplotype clustering. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 81(5): 1084−1097. doi: 10.1086/521987
    Budaev SV. 2010. Using principal components and factor analysis in animal behaviour research: Caveats and guidelines. Ethology, 116(5): 472−480. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2010.01758.x
    Burrow HM. 2001. Variances and covariances between productive and adaptive traits and temperament in a composite breed of tropical beef cattle. Livestock Production Science, 70(3): 213−233. doi: 10.1016/S0301-6226(01)00178-6
    Cathomas F, Stegen M, Sigrist H, Schmid L, Seifritz E, Gassmann M, et al. 2015. Altered emotionality and neuronal excitability in mice lacking KCTD12, an auxiliary subunit of GABAB receptors associated with mood disorders. Translational Psychiatry, 5(2): e510−e510. doi: 10.1038/tp.2015.8
    Cetin Z, Yakut S, Clark OA, Mihci E, Berker S, Luleci G. 2013. A 5q12.1–5q12.3 microdeletion in a case with a balanced exceptional complex chromosomal rearrangement. Gene, 516(1): 176−180. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.12.013
    Champely S, Ekstrom C, Dalgaard P, Gill J, Weibelzahl S, Anandkumar A, et al. 2018. Package ‘pwr’. R Package Version, 1(2).
    Chen QM, Zhan JX, Shen JF, Qu KX, Hanif Q, Liu JY, et al. 2020a. Whole‐genome resequencing reveals diversity, global and local ancestry proportions in yunling cattle. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 137(6): 641−650. doi: 10.1111/jbg.12479
    Chen QM, Huang BZ, Zhan JX, Wang JJ, Qu KX, Zhang FW, et al. 2020b. Whole-genome analyses identify loci and selective signals associated with body size in cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 98(3): skaa068. doi: 10.1093/jas/skaa068
    Connan F, Murphy F, Connor SEJ, Rich P, Murphy T, Bara-Carill N, et al. 2006. Hippocampal volume and cognitive function in anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Research:Neuroimaging, 146(2): 117−125. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2005.10.006
    Costa M, Squassina A, Congiu D, Chillotti C, Niola P, Galderisi S, et al. 2013. Investigation of endocannabinoid system genes suggests association between peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-α gene (PPARA) and schizophrenia. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 23(7): 749−759. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2012.07.007
    Cukier HN, Dueker ND, Slifer SH, Lee JM, Whitehead PL, Lalanne E, et al. 2014. Exome sequencing of extended families with autism reveals genes shared across neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Molecular Autism, 5(1): 1. doi: 10.1186/2040-2392-5-1
    Dobin A, Davis CA, Schlesinger F, Drenkow J, Zaleski C, Jha S, et al. 2013. STAR: ultrafast universal RNA-seq aligner. Bioinformatics, 29(1): 15−21. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts635
    Dos Santos FC, Peixoto MGCD, De Souza Fonseca PA, De Fátima Ávila Pires M, Ventura RV, Rosse IDC, et al. 2017. Identification of candidate genes for reactivity in guzerat (Bos indicus) cattle: a genome-wide association study. PLoS One, 12(1): e0169163. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169163
    Dou KX, Zhang C, Tan CC, Xu W, Li JQ, Cao XP, et al. 2019. Genome-wide association study identifies CBFA2T3 affecting the rate of csf Aβ42 decline in non-demented elders. Aging, 11(15): 5433−5444. doi: 10.18632/aging.102125
    Eszlari N, Millinghoffer A, Petschner P, Gonda X, Baksa D, Pulay AJ, et al. 2017. Genome-wide gene-based tests replicate the association of the SORCS3 gene with neuroticism. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 27(4): S579−S580.
    Fabbri C, Serretti A. 2016. Genetics of long-term treatment outcome in bipolar disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 65: 17−24. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.08.008
    Fell LR, Colditz IG, Walker KH, Watson DL. 1999. Associations between temperament, performance and immune function in cattle entering a commercial feedlot. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 39(7): 795−802. doi: 10.1071/EA99027
    Forlenza OV, De-Paula VJR, Diniz BSO. 2014. Neuroprotective effects of lithium: Implications for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 5(6): 443−450. doi: 10.1021/cn5000309
    Frazee AC, Pertea G, Jaffe AE, Langmead B, Salzberg SL, Leek JT. 2015. Ballgown bridges the gap between transcriptome assembly and expression analysis. Nature Biotechnology, 33(3): 243−246. doi: 10.1038/nbt.3172
    Friedrich J, Brand B, Ponsuksili S, Graunke KL, Langbein J, Knaust J, et al. 2016. Detection of genetic variants affecting cattle behaviour and their impact on milk production: A genome‐wide association study. Animal Genetics, 47(1): 12−18. doi: 10.1111/age.12371
    Friedrich J, Brand B, Schwerin M. 2015. Genetics of cattle temperament and its impact on livestock production and breeding-a review. Archives Animal Breeding, 58(1): 13−21. doi: 10.5194/aab-58-13-2015
    Garza-Brenner E, Sifuentes-Rincón AM, Randel RD, Paredes-Sánchez FA, Parra-Bracamonte GM, Vera WA, et al. 2017. Association of snps in dopamine and serotonin pathway genes and their interacting genes with temperament traits in charolais cows. Journal of Applied Genetics, 58(3): 363−371. doi: 10.1007/s13353-016-0383-0
    Gibbons J, Lawrence A, Haskell M. 2009. Responsiveness of dairy cows to human approach and novel stimuli. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 116(2–4): 163–173.
    Graunke KL, Nürnberg G, Repsilber D, Puppe B, Langbein J. 2013. Describing temperament in an ungulate: A multidimensional approach. PLoS One, 8(9): e74579. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074579
    Green MR, Hughes H, Sambrook J, MacCallum P. 2012. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. In: Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 1890–1890.
    Gusareva ES, Carrasquillo MM, Bellenguez C, Cuyvers E, Colon S, Graff-Radford NR, et al. 2014. Genome-wide association interaction analysis for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 35(11): 2436−2443. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.05.014
    Gutiérrez-Gil B, Ball N, Burton D, Haskell M, Williams JL, Wiener P. 2008. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting cattle temperament. Journal of Heredity, 99(6): 629−638. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esn060
    Hall NL, Buchanan DS, Anderson VL, Ilse BR, Carlin KR, Berg EP. 2011. Working chute behavior of feedlot cattle can be an indication of cattle temperament and beef carcass composition and quality. Meat Science, 89(1): 52−57. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.03.020
    Haskell MJ, Simm G, Turner SP. 2014. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle. Frontiers in Genetics, 5: 368.
    Hermey G, Plath N, Hübner CA, Kuhl D, Schaller HC, Hermans‐Borgmeyer I. 2004. The three sorcs genes are differentially expressed and regulated by synaptic activity. Journal of Neurochemistry, 88(6): 1470−1476. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2004.02286.x
    Hills LB, Masri A, Konno K, Kakegawa W, Lam ATN, Lim-Melia E, et al. 2013. Deletions in GRID2 lead to a recessive syndrome of cerebellar ataxia and tonic upgaze in humans. Neurology, 81(16): 1378−1386. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182a841a3
    Hong EP, Park JW. 2012. Sample size and statistical power calculation in genetic association studies. Genomics & informatics, 10(2): 117.
    Hoppe S, Brandt HR, König S, Erhardt G, Gauly M. 2010. Temperament traits of beef calves measured under field conditions and their relationships to performance. Journal of Animal Science, 88(6): 1982−1989. doi: 10.2527/jas.2008-1557
    Hu ZL, Park CA, Reecy JM. 2019. Building a livestock genetic and genomic information knowledgebase through integrative developments of animal QTLDB and CorrDB. Nucleic Acids Research, 47(D1): D701−D710. doi: 10.1093/nar/gky1084
    Inagaki T, Miyaoka T, Okazaki S, Yasuda H, Kawamukai T, Utani E, et al. 2010. High salivary alpha-amylase levels in patients with schizophrenia: a pilot study. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 34(4): 688−691. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.03.024
    Jansen P, Giehl K, Nyengaard JR, Teng K, Lioubinski O, Sjoegaard SS, et al. 2007. Roles for the pro-neurotrophin receptor sortilin in neuronal development, aging and brain injury. Nature Neuroscience, 10(11): 1449−1457. doi: 10.1038/nn2000
    Jensen K, Stein MB, Kranzler HR, Yang BZ, Farrer LA, Gelernter J. 2014. The α-endomannosidase gene (MANEA) is associated with panic disorder and social anxiety disorder. Translational Psychiatry, 4(1): e353. doi: 10.1038/tp.2013.122
    Jonsson T, Atwal JK, Steinberg S, Snaedal J, Jonsson PV, Bjornsson S, et al. 2012. A mutation in APP protects against Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline. Nature, 488(7409): 96−99. doi: 10.1038/nature11283
    Kim D, Langmead B, Salzberg SL. 2015. HISAT: a fast spliced aligner with low memory requirements. Nature Methods, 12(4): 357−360. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.3317
    Kim S. 2015. ppcor: an R package for a fast calculation to semi-partial correlation coefficients. Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods, 22(6): 665−674. doi: 10.5351/CSAM.2015.22.6.665
    Kong Y, Liang XJ, Liu L, Zhang DD, Wan C, Gan ZJ, et al. 2015. High throughput sequencing identifies microRNAs mediating α-synuclein toxicity by targeting neuroactive-ligand receptor interaction pathway in early stage of Drosophila parkinson's disease model. PLoS One, 10(9): e0137432. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137432
    Koplik EV, Salieva RM, Gorbunova AV. 1995. The open-field test as a prognostic criterion of resistance to emotional stress in wistar rats. Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deiatelnosti Imeni IP Pavlova, 45(4): 775−781.
    Kuwano Y, Kamio Y, Kawai T, Katsuura S, Inada N, Takaki A, et al. 2011. Autism-associated gene expression in peripheral leucocytes commonly observed between subjects with autism and healthy women having autistic children. PLoS One, 6(9): e24723. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024723
    Lane RF, Steele JW, Cai DM, Ehrlich ME, Attie AD, Gandy S. 2013. Protein sorting motifs in the cytoplasmic tail of SorCS1 control generation of Alzheimer's amyloid-β peptide. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(16): 7099−7107. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5270-12.2013
    Leblond CS, Heinrich J, Delorme R, Proepper C, Betancur C, Huguet G, et al. 2012. Genetic and functional analyses of SHANK2 mutations suggest a multiple hit model of autism spectrum disorders. PLoS Genetics, 8(2): e1002521. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002521
    Lee CC, Huang CC, Hsu KS. 2015. The phospholipid-binding protein SESTD1 negatively regulates dendritic spine density by interfering with Rac1-Trio8 signaling pathway. Scientific Reports, 5: 13250. doi: 10.1038/srep13250
    Li H, Durbin R. 2009. Fast and accurate short read alignment with burrows–wheeler transform. Bioinformatics, 25(14): 1754−1760. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp324
    Lindholm-Perry AK, Kuehn LA, Freetly HC, Snelling WM. 2015. Genetic markers that influence feed efficiency phenotypes also affect cattle temperament as measured by flight speed. Animal Genetics, 46(1): 60−64. doi: 10.1111/age.12244
    Liu HD, Luo K, Luo DH. 2018. Guanosine monophosphate reductase 1 is a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s disease. Scientific Reports, 8(1): 2759. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-21256-6
    MacDowell KS, Pinacho R, Leza JC, Costa J, Ramos B, García-Bueno B. 2017. Differential regulation of the TLR4 signalling pathway in post-mortem prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in chronic schizophrenia: relationship with SP transcription factors. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 79: 481−492. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.08.005
    MacLeod I, Bowman P, Chamberlain A, Vander Jagt C, Daetwyler H, Hayes B, et al. 2019. Genomic prediction and candidate gene discovery for dairy cattle temperament using sequence data and functional biology. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Conference of the Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics (AAABG). NSW, Australia: Armidale. 416–419.
    Maier MJ, Maier MMJ. 2015. Package ‘redas’. Recuperado.
    Manocha GD, Ghatak A, Puig KL, Kraner SD, Norris CM, Combs CK. 2017. NFATc2 modulates microglial activation in the AΒPP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 58(3): 775−787. doi: 10.3233/JAD-151203
    McGregor NW, Lochner C, Stein DJ, Hemmings SMJ. 2016. Polymorphisms within the neuronal cadherin (CDH2) gene are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a south african cohort. Metabolic Brain Disease, 31(1): 191−196. doi: 10.1007/s11011-015-9693-x
    Meda SA, Koran MEI, Pryweller JR, Vega JN, Thornton-Wells TA, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. 2013. Genetic interactions associated with 12-month atrophy in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative. Neurobiology of Aging, 34(5): 1518.e9−1518.e18. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.09.020
    Nekrutenko A, Taylor J. 2012. Next-generation sequencing data interpretation: enhancing reproducibility and accessibility. Nature Reviews Genetics, 13(9): 667−672. doi: 10.1038/nrg3305
    Patterson N, Price AL, Reich D. 2006. Population structure and eigenanalysis. PLoS Genetics, 2(12): e190. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020190
    Perroud N, Dayer A, Piguet C, Nallet A, Favre S, Malafosse A, et al. 2014. Childhood maltreatment and methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 in bipolar disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204(1): 30−35. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.120055
    Pertea M, Pertea GM, Antonescu CM, Chang TC, Mendell JT, Salzberg SL. 2015. StringTie enables improved reconstruction of a transcriptome from RNA-seq reads. Nature Biotechnology, 33(3): 290−295. doi: 10.1038/nbt.3122
    Phocas F, Boivin X, Sapa J, Trillat G, Boissy A, Le Neindre P. 2006. Genetic correlations between temperament and breeding traits in limousin heifers. Animal Science, 82(6): 805−811. doi: 10.1017/ASC200696
    Pijlman FTA, Wolterink G, Van Ree JM. 2003. Physical and emotional stress have differential effects on preference for saccharine and open field behaviour in rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 139(1–2): 131–138.
    Plassais J, Kim J, Davis BW, Karyadi DM, Hogan AN, Harris AC, et al. 2019. Whole genome sequencing of canids reveals genomic regions under selection and variants influencing morphology. Nature Communications, 10(1): 1489. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09373-w
    Purcell S, Neale B, Todd-Brown K, Thomas L, Ferreira MAR, Bender D, et al. 2007. PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses. AJHG, 81(3): 559−575. doi: 10.1086/519795
    Putnam DK, Sun JC, Zhao ZM. 2011. Exploring schizophrenia drug-gene interactions through molecular network and pathway modeling. In: AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings. American Medical Informatics Association, 1127.
    Raven LA, Cocks BG, Hayes BJ. 2014. Multibreed genome wide association can improve precision of mapping causative variants underlying milk production in dairy cattle. BMC Genomics, 15(1): 62. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-62
    Rodríguez-Liñares L, Lado MJ, Vila XA, Méndez AJ, Cuesta P. 2014. gHRV: heart rate variability analysis made easy. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 116(1): 26−38. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2014.04.007
    Sanchez MP, Govignon-Gion A, Croiseau P, Fritz S, Hozé C, Miranda G, et al. 2017. Within-breed and multi-breed gwas on imputed whole-genome sequence variants reveal candidate mutations affecting milk protein composition in dairy cattle. Genetics Selection Evolution, 49(1): 68. doi: 10.1186/s12711-017-0344-z
    Sant'Anna AC, Da Costa MJRP, Baldi F, Rueda PM, Albuquerque LG. 2012. Genetic associations between flight speed and growth traits in nellore cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 90(10): 3427−3432. doi: 10.2527/jas.2011-5044
    Sesarini CV, Costa L, Grañana N, Coto MG, Pallia RC, Argibay PF. 2015. Association between GABA(A) receptor subunit polymorphisms and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Psychiatry Research, 229(1–2): 580–582.
    Singh KK. 2013. An emerging role for wnt and GSK3 signaling pathways in schizophrenia. Clinical Genetics, 83(6): 511−517. doi: 10.1111/cge.12111
    Song J, Bergen SE, Di Florio A, Karlsson R, Charney A, Ruderfer DM, et al. 2016. Genome-wide association study identifies SESTD1 as a novel risk gene for lithium-responsive bipolar disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(9): 1290−1297. doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.165
    Sullivan CR, Mielnik CA, O'Donovan SM, Funk AJ, Bentea E, DePasquale EA, et al. 2019. Connectivity analyses of bioenergetic changes in schizophrenia: Identification of novel treatments. Molecular Neurobiology, 56(6): 4492−4517. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1390-4
    R Core Team. 2013. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Development Core Team.
    Teslovich TM, Musunuru K, Smith AV, Edmondson AC, Stylianou IM, Koseki M, et al. 2010. Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids. Nature, 466(7307): 707−713. doi: 10.1038/nature09270
    Valente TS, Baldi F, Sant’Anna AC, Albuquerque LG, Da Costa. MJRP. 2016. Genome-wide association study between single nucleotide polymorphisms and flight speed in nellore cattle. PLoS One, 11(6): e0156956. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156956
    Vallée A, Daures J, Van Arendonk JAM, Bovenhuis H. 2016. Genome-wide association study for behavior, type traits, and muscular development in charolais beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 94(6): 2307−2316. doi: 10.2527/jas.2016-0319
    Wang K, Li MY, Hakonarson H. 2010. ANNOVAR: functional annotation of genetic variants from high-throughput sequencing data. Nucleic Acids Research, 38(16): e164. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq603
    Wang Y, Zhang CZ, Wang NN, Li ZP, Heller R, Liu R, et al. 2019. Genetic basis of ruminant headgear and rapid antler regeneration. Science, 364(6446): eaav6335. doi: 10.1126/science.aav6335
    Wendland JR, Kruse MR, Murphy DL. 2006. Functional SLITRK1 var321, varCDfs and SLC6A4 G56A variants and susceptibility to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 11(9): 802−804. doi: 10.1038/sj.mp.4001848
    Westerhaus MJ, Loewy AD. 2001. Central representation of the sympathetic nervous system in the cerebral cortex. Brain Research, 903(1–2): 117–127.
    Wockner LF, Morris CP, Noble EP, Lawford BR, Whitehall VLJ, Young RM, et al. 2015. Brain-specific epigenetic markers of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry, 5(11): e680. doi: 10.1038/tp.2015.177
    Xie C, Mao XZ, Huang JJ, Ding Y, Wu JM, Dong S, et al. 2011. KOBAS 2.0: a web server for annotation and identification of enriched pathways and diseases. Nucleic Acids Research, 39(S2): W316−W322.
    Yang XY, Stanley RE, Ross AP, Robitaille AM, Gray JA, Cheyette BNR. 2019. Sestd1 encodes a developmentally dynamic synapse protein that complexes with BCR Rac1-GAP to regulate forebrain dendrite, spine and synapse formation. Cerebral Cortex, 29(2): 505−516. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhx333
    Zheng WP, Chen YM, Chen HY, Xiao WD, Liang YJ, Wang N, et al. 2018. Identification of key target genes and biological pathways in multiple sclerosis brains using microarray data obtained from the gene expression omnibus database. Neurological Research, 40(10): 883−891. doi: 10.1080/01616412.2018.1497253
    Zhou X, Stephens M. 2012. Genome-wide efficient mixed-model analysis for association studies. Nature Genetics, 44(7): 821−824. doi: 10.1038/ng.2310
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(4)  / Tables(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (372) PDF downloads(41) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint