1992 Vol. 13, No. 2
1992, 13(2): 95-99.
Goitred Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) is one of precious ungulate of China.Fewer study were reported on its resource and biology.This paper presents that the methods of two sides grinding-segmenting and etching were used to determine the relation between the growth layers and convex ridges of horn sheath of Goitred Gazelle.There were seven samples of skull of Goitred Gazelle which were obtained in 1990s from Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.The method was tested and verified by the cementum annulation appeared in the section of the first lower incisor (I).The sample (No.90001) showed that all growth layers related to the rings which encircling the horn sheath.No rings appeared in the horn sheath of the first growth layer.The first ring was formed in its second winter,and one ring was formed in every winter afterwards.No convex ridge appeared on horn within its first age.From its 2 to 3 years old,there were 4-5 convex ridges within every one year.After 4 years old,there were 2-3 convex ridges within every one year.The true age annulations were the deeper rings with rough edges appeared on horn sheath,differed from the convex ridges obviously.There were 5 age rings can be seen (Fig.1).On the other hand,these age annulations appeared in the vertical sections of tooth (Fig.2).On the vertical sections of tooth,a brown thin line was formed in its first year old;a wide line that pigment granule becomes deeper,appeared in its second year old;the third and the fifth year old was the same as the second year old;the fourth year old was the same as the first year old.This sample was obtained in its fifth winter.According the above,it can be drown that the numbers of convex ridges of horn did not indicate the age,the true age rings was that there was an unobvious rough ring behind the convex ridge.This result can be used in the field research of ecology and the investigation of the social structure.
1992, 13(2): 100-108.
The Identity of Reptiles and Their Origination and Evolution in Southeastern Asia and Yunnan Province of China
1992, 13(2): 101-108.
Yunnan and its adjacent provinces:Sichuan,Guizhou,Guangxi and Tibet in China belong to Southeastern Asia.Based on the standpoint about the wide distribution of reptiles,we study the reptilian fauna of Yunnan and those of Southeastern Asia as well as of southern Asia as a whole,so as to explain the identity of origin for the reptiles of southeastern Asia.By this research,the problem for the origination of Yunnan reptiles are effort to be resolved.In this paper,after a comparison of the distributions of the families,genera and species of reptiles in Indian Peninsula,Southeastern Asia and the adjacent islands,with Yunnan and the neibour provinces of China by the macroscopic method,we have found that the fauna of different regions of southeastern Asia are different in genus and species level,we have also noticed the tendency that the quality of genera and species is constantly reduced from west to east,and from south to north,but in the sense of family level,it is very similar.
1992, 13(2): 109-115.
The present paper describes three similar species of water mites,two of which are new:Arrenurus (Micruracarus) madaraszi Daday,A.(Micruracarus) madarasziatus sp.nov.and A.(Micruracarus) huazhongensis sp.nov.All specimens are deposited in the Guizhou Agricultural College.
1992, 13(2): 116-122.
1992, 13(2): 117-121.
The present paper deals with three new species of the genus Petalocephala Stal,1853,collected from Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces,China.The type specimens are deposited in the Anhui Agricultural College.
Four New Species of Reticulitermes and Pseudocapritermes (Isoptera:Kalotermitidae and Termitidae) From Yunnan,China
1992, 13(2): 123-131.
1)Reticulitermes (Frontotermes) jiangchengensis sp.nov.;2)Reticulitermes (Planifrontotermes) curticeps sp.nov.;3)Pseudocapritermes planimentus sp.nov.;4)Pseudocapritermes jiangchengensis sp.nov.
1992, 13(2): 132-138.
Descriptions of New and First Recorded Species of The Genus Gallerucida (Coieoptea:Chrysomelidae:Galerucinae)
1992, 13(2): 133-137.
The present paper deals with four species of the genus Gallerucida,three of them are new to science,one first recorded to China.All the species including in this paper are distinguished by Prof.Chen S.H.during his life time and described by Mr.Yang Xingke.The type specimens are preserved in the Inscct Collections of the Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica.
1992, 13(2): 139-144.
Intracerebroventricularly (I.c.v.) administered GABA (2.4.6 umol) significantly accelerated the development of gastric ulcer induced by ethanol (o.p.) in mice in a dose dependent manner,whereas GABA (I.p.100 umol) could not modify the ethanol-induced ulcer in mice.Atropine (s.e.0.2 mg/kg) exacerbated the ethanol-induced ulcer significantly,while blocking the exacerbation of ulcer induced by GABA partly.Regetine (I.m.2.5 mg/kg) potentiated the ethanol-induced ulcer weakly,and had no effect on the exacerbation of ulcer induced by GABA.These results suggested that exsragenetic GABA exacerbates the ethanolinduced gastric ulcer through central GABA-ergic mechanisms,but not peripherally.Vagus may contribute to gastric protective effect against ulceration.It may be one of main pathway in GABA s action.Sympathetic nerve maybe have relationship with the GABA-ergic mechanisms.
1992, 13(2): 145-151.
This paper dealt with comparative studies on the trace elements inside Ghost Moths larva (Hepialus) grown in 12 distinct months during one year.204 trace elements variablse were measured from the 12 groups larva,division of the groups into months,which were collected monthly during one year.All the variables and some combinations of them were explored to study the relationships among elements,feeding,behaviour and development etc.Together with all the investigation on ecological environments of the larva,by using the mathematical method we studied that the growth of the larva were influenced by the elements which were absorbed by itself.The results of clustering analysis showed that the elements contents in the body of the larva were tuned by surrounding temperature.The elements inside the larva collected in Oct.are almost equal they collected in May.The larva must moved severe and so they need to feed after hibernation in May,and stored food for winter sleep in Oct.These need led to the addition of eating substances.The resulte of correspondence analysis demonstrated that the larva absorb more elements Fe P from nourishments in Oct.and Nov.than in other months,and absorb more Na Ca Mg in Aug.and Sep.,and absorb more Cu Zn Co Cd Si elements in Apr.and May.
1992, 13(2): 153-159.
Hair keratins from a total of 50 individuals belonging to 10 families and 18 species have been analyzed by means of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).Animal hairs differ mainly from human hair in the range of low molecular weight components (<18500 dalton).There are obviously differences among various animal species.Ailuropode melanoleuca hair is greatly different from Ailurus fulgens hair and Selenarctos thibetanus hair.Based on this observation,the paper describes a difference of keratin component from animal hairs,which provides useful information for hair comparision in animal taxonomy.
1992, 13(2): 161-164.
Mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNA) were isolated from brain tissue of three monkeys,I.e.,an old (over 12 years old) and a young (2-3 years old) rhesus monkeys,and a young (1-2 years old) crab-eating monkey.The method we used is alkaline lysis as described in our previous paper.Compared with marker DNA (λ/EcoRⅠ/Hind Ⅲ) on gel,the final yield was about 0.7 μg mtDNA/g brain tissue,a little lower than that from liver tissue.On the other hand,the homogenization of brain tissue is very easy;and the quality of the mtDNA is better than mtDNA from liver tissue,I.e.,there was much less protein and RNA in rough mtDNA from brain tissue,so further purification of the mtDNA by Sepharose-4B column or Rnase digestion is not needed.This method is thought to be useful in the study of mammal genetics.The mtDNAs from brain were compared with those from livers of the same monkey.When 16 restriction enzymes of 6 bp recognition were used,38-42 sites were observed in the samples.By combining the cleavage patterns for eachenzyme,we classified the three samples into three different restriction types.Meanwhile,the mtDANs from brains and livers of the same animals showed no difference.The results demonstrated further that mtDNA from different organs of the same animal had no difference.Our results about the old monkey also suggested that there might be no change in mtDNA sequences in the process of senility.
1992, 13(2): 165-171.
Micro-spread and silver-stained preparations of spermatocytes of C.amherstiae,C.pictus and P.colchicus have been analyzed by electron microscopy.SC karyotypes of three pheasants are very similar and are 2n=82,ZZ/ZW sex ditermined and male is ZZ.No.1 and Z-SC are metacentric,the others are telocentric.Relative length of Z-SCs has strikingly difference among spermatocytes,but the mean is always between No.3 and No4.SC.The main difference of SC karyotypes of three pheasants is the length of corresponding SCs.The consanguinity and probable position of three pheasants in evolution have been discussed.Large centrioles are tound for the first time in C.amherstiae and C.pictus spermatocytes and can be analyzed at the same time in SC samples prepared by microspreading technique.
1992, 13(2): 173-176.
Forty-five C57BL/6J female mice were mated with the same strain male.3 μl mixture of undiluted H-Y antisera and guinea pig complement (1∶2) were injectcd into each uterine horn of the female mice,while into each uterine horn of control female mice only 3 μl complement was injected.In consequence,247 offsprings were obtained from 42 of 45 experimental female mice:each litter has 6 offsprings on average,the sex ratio was 2.7 (180♀/67♂),and its percentage was 73%;163 offsprings were obtained from 20 contrel femal;mice:the average of each litter was 8 offsprings,the sex ratio was 0.92(78♀/85♂),and its percentage was 48%.Obviously,the percentage of the fcrmer was 25% higher than that of the latter.The difference betwecn them was very significant (P<0.001).
1992, 13(2): 177-184.
This paper deals with the comparison of C-banding patterns of all Rattus species (8 species) in China.And there are some differences among their C-banded karyotypes.The evolution of C-banding patterns of 8 species of rats has been studied,and the following factors maybe facilitate karyotypic variability:loss of centromeric heterochromatin,interstitial heterochromatin,terminal heterochromatin and heterochromatic arms.Based on the different characteristics of C-banded karyotypes,R.yunnanensis,R.shkkimmensis and R.turkestanicus may be classified into three independent species.Moreover,a cluster dendrogram has been presented in this paper by the fuzzy aggregation.It shows that these 8 species are able to divide into two groups:R.rattus sladeni R.sikkimensis for the first group and R.flavipectus,R.yunnanensis,R.nitidus,R.losea,R.turkestanicus and R.norvegicus for the second.
1992, 13(2): 185-192.
The effects of selected DNA repair inhibitors on the frequency of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-induced chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were evaluated.Treatment of HCMV-infected PBLs with camptothecin (0.05 to 0.3 μg/ml),an inhibitor of topoisomerase Ⅰ,for 30 hr resulted in a significant (P<0.01) synergistic enhancement of the frequency of HCMV-induced chromosome damage.On the other hand,a significant increase in the frequency of chromosome damage was not noted for infected PBLs treated with either 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) (3 to 30 μg/ml),an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase,or novobiocin (3 to 30 μg/ml) an inhibitor of topoisomerase Ⅱ or excision repair processes for 30 hr.Chromatid-type breaks including chromosome exchanges were the predominant type of chromosome aberrations observed in the HCMV-infected cells treated with camptothecin suggesting that HCMV infection is associated with the induction of single-strand DNA breaks.Furthermors,these findings suggest that HCMV infection does not inflict direct DNA damage which is repaired through 3-AB-or novobiecinsensitive pathways.