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1
The Method of Look for Nests of Wasps
WANG Yun-zhen, DONG Da-zhi, ZHAO Wan-yuan
1988, 9(2): 126-126.
+ 摘要 (19224) PDF (31KB) (1481)
2
Chromosome Studies of Mammals
CHEN Yi-feng, GUO Jian-min
1984, 5(zk): 52-63.
+ 摘要 (18497) PDF (305KB) (3400)
3
Mitogenomic phylogeny of the Asian colobine genus Trachypithecus with special focus on Trachypithecus phayrei (Blyth, 1847) and description of a new species
Christian Roos, Kristofer M. Helgen, Roberto Portela Miguez, Naw May Lay Thant, Ngwe Lwin, Aung Ko Lin, Aung Lin, Khin Mar Yi, Paing Soe, Zin Mar Hein, Margaret Nyein Nyein Myint, Tanvir Ahmed, Dilip Chetry, Melina Urh, E. Grace Veatch, Neil Duncan, Pepijn Kamminga, Marcus A. H. Chua, Lu Yao, Christian Matauschek, Dirk Meyer, Zhi-Jin Liu, Ming Li, Tilo Nadler, Peng-Fei Fan, Le Khac Quyet, Michael Hofreiter, Dietmar Zinner, Frank Momberg
2020, 41(6): 656-669. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.254
Trachypithecus, which currently contains 20 species divided into four groups, is the most speciose and geographically dispersed genus among Asian colobines. Despite several morphological and molecular studies, however, its evolutionary history and phylogeography remain poorly understood. Phayre’s langur (Trachypithecus phayrei) is one of the most widespread members of the genus, but details on its actual distribution and intraspecific taxonomy are limited and controversial. Thus, to elucidate the evolutionary history of Trachypithecus and to clarify the intraspecific taxonomy and distribution of T. phayrei, we sequenced 41 mitochondrial genomes from georeferenced fecal samples and museum specimens, including two holotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a robustly supported phylogeny of Trachypithecus, suggesting that the T. pileatus group branched first, followed by the T. francoisi group, and the T. cristatus and T. obscurus groups most recently. The four species groups diverged from each other 4.5–3.1 million years ago (Ma), while speciation events within these groups occurred much more recently (1.6–0.3 Ma). Within T. phayrei, we found three clades that diverged 1.0–0.9 Ma, indicating the existence of three rather than two taxa. Following the phylogenetic species concept and based on genetic, morphological, and ecological differences, we elevate the T. phayrei subspecies to species level, describe a new species from central Myanmar, and refine the distribution of the three taxa. Overall, our study highlights the importance of museum specimens and provides new insights not only into the evolutionary history of T. phayrei but the entire Trachypithecus genus as well.
4
Zoonotic origins of human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19 / SARS-CoV-2): why is this work important?
Gary Wong, Yu-Hai Bi, Qi-Hui Wang, Xin-Wen Chen, Zhi-Gang Zhang, Yong-Gang Yao
2020, 41(3): 213-219. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.031

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19 / SARS-CoV-2 / 2019-nCoV), is a global threat to the human population. Here, we briefly summarize the available data for the zoonotic origins of HCoV-19, with reference to the other two epidemics of highly virulent coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which cause severe pneumonia in humans. We propose to intensify future efforts for tracing the origins of HCoV-19, which is a very important scientific question for the control and prevention of the pandemic.

5
Construction of a cDNA Library from the Testis and Sequence Analysis of the Ubiquitin Gene from Rana nigromaculata (in English)
ZHENG Ping-ping, CHEN Wen, LI Jie, RUI Jin-long, NIE Liu-wang *
2007, 28(1): 9-16.
+ 摘要 (11371) PDF (695KB) (2033)
A full-length cDNA library from the testis of dark-spotted frogs (Rana nigromaculata) was constructed with the SMART (switching mechanism at 5′ end of RNA transcript) technique. Total RNA was extracted from the testis and reverse transcripted into full-length cDNA using PowerScript reverse transcriptase. The first-strand cDNA was amplified using long-distance PCR (LD-PCR). After SfiⅠ digestion and fractionation, cDNA (>500 bp) was ligated to λ TriplEx2 vector and packaged with GigapackR Ⅲ Gold Packaging Extract. The titers of optimal primary libraries were 2.0×106 pfu/mL and 2.4×106 pfu/mL and the titers of the amplified libraries were 0.48×109 pfu/mL and 3.0×109 pfu/mL, respectively. The percentages of recombinant clones of primary libraries and amplified libraries were all over 90%. The libraries were converted into pTriplEx2 plasmids in E. coli BM 25.8 strain. The insert sizes were measured by PCR which showed most fragments were over 500 bp and the average length was 1.0?kb approximately. A positive clone of 1 171 bp was sequenced and named RnUb based on sequence similarity with the known ubiquitin genes in GenBank. This sequence was a full-length cDNA with complete coding sequences, which indicated that the library built a base for screening the full-length cDNA. These data showed that this library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful resource for the functional genomic research of Rana nigromaculata.
6
Phylogeography of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Spain: a story of multiple introductions, micro-geographic stratification, founder effects, and super-spreaders
Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Xabier Bello, Jacobo Pardo-Seco, María Luisa Pérez del Molino, Federico Martinón-Torres, Antonio Salas
2020, 41(6): 605-620. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.217
Spain has been one of the main global pandemic epicenters for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we analyzed >41 000 genomes (including >26 000 high-quality (HQ) genomes) downloaded from the GISAID repository, including 1 245 (922 HQ) sampled in Spain. The aim of this study was to investigate genome variation of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and reconstruct phylogeographic and transmission patterns in Spain. Phylogeographic analysis suggested at least 34 independent introductions of SARS-CoV-2 to Spain at the beginning of the outbreak. Six lineages spread very successfully in the country, probably favored by super-spreaders, namely, A2a4 (7.8%), A2a5 (38.4%), A2a10 (2.8%), B3a (30.1%), and B9 (8.7%), which accounted for 87.9% of all genomes in the Spanish database. One distinct feature of the Spanish SARS-CoV-2 genomes was the higher frequency of B lineages (39.3%, mainly B3a+B9) than found in any other European country. While B3a, B9, (and an important sub-lineage of A2a5, namely, A2a5c) most likely originated in Spain, the other three haplogroups were imported from other European locations. The B3a strain may have originated in the Basque Country from a B3 ancestor of uncertain geographic origin, whereas B9 likely emerged in Madrid. The time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that the first coronavirus entered the country around 11 February 2020, as estimated from the TMRCA of B3a, the first lineage detected in the country. Moreover, earlier claims that the D614G mutation is associated to higher transmissibility is not consistent with the very high prevalence of COVID-19 in Spain when compared to other countries with lower disease incidence but much higher frequency of this mutation (56.4% in Spain vs. 82.4% in rest of Europe). Instead, the data support a major role of genetic drift in modeling the micro-geographic stratification of virus strains across the country as well as the role of SARS-CoV-2 super-spreaders.
7
Mudskipper interleukin-34 modulates the functions of monocytes/macrophages via the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor 1
Hai-Yu Shen, Yan Zhou, Qian-Jin Zhou, Ming-Yun Li, Jiong Chen
2020, 41(2): 123-137. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.026

Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a novel cytokine that plays an important role in innate immunity and inflammatory processes by binding to the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R). However, information on the function of IL-34 in fish remains limited. In the present study, we identified an IL-34 homolog from mudskippers (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris). In silico analysis showed that the mudskipper IL-34 (BpIL-34) was similar to other known IL-34 variants in sequence and structure and was most closely related to an orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) homolog. BpIL-34 transcripts were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with the highest level of expression found in the brain. Edwardsiella tarda infection significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of BpIL-34 in the mudskipper tissues. The recombinant mature BpIL-34 peptide (rBpIL-34) was purified and used to produce anti-rBpIL-34 IgG. Western blot analysis combined with PNGase F digestion revealed that native BpIL-34 in monocytes/macrophages (MOs/MФs) was N-glycosylated. In vitro, rBpIL-34 treatment enhanced the phagocytotic and bactericidal activity of mudskipper MOs/MФs, as well as the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor α (BpTNF-α) and BpIL-1β in these cells. Furthermore, the knockdown of mudskipper CSF-1R1 (BpCSF-1R1), but not mudskipper BpCSF-1R2, significantly inhibited the rBpIL-34-mediated enhanced effect on MO/MФ function. In conclusion, our results indicate that mudskipper BpIL-34 modulates the functions of MOs/MФs via BpCSF-1R1.

8
Decoding the evolution and transmissions of the novel pneumonia coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 / HCoV-19) using whole genomic data
Wen-Bin Yu, Guang-Da Tang, Li Zhang, Richard T. Corlett
2020, 41(3): 247-257. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.022

The outbreak of COVID-19 started in mid-December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Up to 29 February 2020, SARS-CoV-2 (HCoV-19 / 2019-nCoV) had infected more than 85 000 people in the world. In this study, we used 93 complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 from the GISAID EpiFluTM database to investigate the evolution and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 in the first two months of the outbreak. We constructed haplotypes of the SARS-CoV-2 genomes, performed phylogenomic analyses and estimated the potential population size changes of the virus. The date of population expansion was calculated based on the expansion parameter tau (τ) using the formula t=τ/2u. A total of 120 substitution sites with 119 codons, including 79 non-synonymous and 40 synonymous substitutions, were found in eight coding-regions in the SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Forty non-synonymous substitutions are potentially associated with virus adaptation. No combinations were detected. The 58 haplotypes (31 found in samples from China and 31 from outside China) were identified in 93 viral genomes under study and could be classified into five groups. By applying the reported bat coronavirus genome (bat-RaTG13-CoV) as the outgroup, we found that haplotypes H13 and H38 might be considered as ancestral haplotypes, and later H1 was derived from the intermediate haplotype H3. The population size of the SARS-CoV-2 was estimated to have undergone a recent expansion on 06 January 2020, and an early expansion on 08 December 2019. Furthermore, phyloepidemiologic approaches have recovered specific directions of human-to-human transmissions and the potential sources for international infected cases.

9
Neuroprotectants attenuate hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injuries in cynomolgus monkeys
Pei Zhang, Jie-Si Chen, Qi-Ye Li, Long-Xiang Sheng, Yi-Xing Gao, Bing-Zheng Lu, Wen-Bo Zhu, Xiao-Yu Zhan, Yuan Li, Zhi-Bing Yuan, Gang Xu, Bi-Tao Qiu, Min Yan, Chun-Xue Guo, You-Qiong Wang, Yi-Jun Huang, Jing-Xia Zhang, Fu-Yu Liu, Zhong-Wei Tang, Sui-Zhen Lin, David N. Cooper, Huan-Ming Yang, Jian Wang, Yu-Qi Gao, Wei Yin, Guo-Jie Zhang, Guang-Mei Yan
2020, 41(1): 3-19. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.012
Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure can cause serious brain injury as well as life-threatening cerebral edema in severe cases. Previous studies on the mechanisms of HH-induced brain injury have been conducted primarily using non-primate animal models that are genetically distant to humans, thus hindering the development of disease treatment. Here, we report that cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) exposed to acute HH developed human-like HH syndrome involving severe brain injury and abnormal behavior. Transcriptome profiling of white blood cells and brain tissue from monkeys exposed to increasing altitude revealed the central role of the HIF-1 and other novel signaling pathways, such as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathway, in co-regulating HH-induced inflammation processes. We also observed profound transcriptomic alterations in brains after exposure to acute HH, including the activation of angiogenesis and impairment of aerobic respiration and protein folding processes, which likely underlie the pathological effects of HH-induced brain injury. Administration of progesterone (PROG) and steroid neuroprotectant 5α-androst-3β,5,6β-triol (TRIOL) significantly attenuated brain injuries and rescued the transcriptomic changes induced by acute HH. Functional investigation of the affected genes suggested that these two neuroprotectants protect the brain by targeting different pathways, with PROG enhancing erythropoiesis and TRIOL suppressing glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the pathology induced by acute HH and provides potential compounds for the development of neuroprotectant drugs for therapeutic treatment.
10
Epidemiological survey of a captive Chinese rhesus macaque breeding colony in Yunnan for SRV, STLV and BV
ZHU Lin, HAN Jian-Bao, ZHANG Xi-He, MA Jian-Ping, LÜ Long-Bao, ZHANG Gao-Hong, ZHENG Yong-Tang
2012, 33(1): 49-54. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2012.01049
+ 摘要 (9236) PDF (430KB) (2031)
Nonhuman primates are critical resources for biomedical research. Rhesus macaque is a popularly used laboratory nonhuman primate that share many characteristics with humans. However, rhesus macaques are the natural host of two exogenous retroviruses, SRV (simian type D retrovirus) and STLV (simian T lymphotropic virus). SRV and STLV may introduce potentially significant confounding factors into the study of AIDS model. Moreover, B virus (ceropithecine herpesvirus 1) is likely to harm not only rhesus macaque but also humans in experiments involving rhesus macaque. Yunnan province has large-scale breeding colonies of Chinese rhesus macaque. Therefore there is an urgent need for SPF Chinese rhesus macaque colonies. Here we investigated SRV, STLV and BV infections in 411 Chinese rhesus macaque by PCR technique. The results showed that the prevalence of SRV, STLV and BV among Chinese rhesus macaque breeding colony was 19.71% (81/411), 13.38% (55/411) and 23.11% (95/411), respectively. Comparison of viruses infection in different age-groups and male/female of Chinese rhesus macaque was also analyzed. This study will contribute to establishment of SPF Chinese rhesus macaque breeding colony.
11
Whole-genome sequencing of leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) and exploration of regulation mechanism of skin color and adaptive evolution
Yang Yang, Li-Na Wu, Jing-Fang Chen, Xi Wu, Jun-Hong Xia, Zi-Ning Meng, Xiao-Chun Liu, Hao-Ran Lin
2020, 41(3): 328-340. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.038

Leopard coral groupers belong to the Plectropomus genus of the Epinephelidae family and are important fish for coral reef ecosystems and the marine aquaculture industry. To promote future research of this species, a high-quality chromosome-level genome was assembled using PacBio sequencing and Hi-C technology. A 787.06 Mb genome was assembled, with 99.7% (784.57 Mb) of bases anchored to 24 chromosomes. The leopard coral grouper genome size was smaller than that of other groupers, which may be related to its ancient status among grouper species. A total of 22 317 protein-coding genes were predicted. This high-quality genome of the leopard coral grouper is the first genomic resource for Plectropomus and should provide a pivotal genetic foundation for further research. Phylogenetic analysis of the leopard coral grouper and 12 other fish species showed that this fish is closely related to the brown-marbled grouper. Expanded genes in the leopard coral grouper genome were mainly associated with immune response and movement ability, which may be related to the adaptive evolution of this species to its habitat. In addition, we also identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with carotenoid metabolism between red and brown-colored leopard coral groupers. These genes may play roles in skin color decision by regulating carotenoid content in these groupers.

12
Review of the genus Brachytarsophrys (Anura: Megophryidae), with revalidation of Brachytarsophrys platyparietus and description of a new species from China
Yao Li, Dan-Dan Zhang, Zhi-Tong Lyu, Jian Wang, Yu-Long Li, Zu-Yao Liu, Hong-Hui Chen, Ding-Qi Rao, Zhi-Fang Jin, Chang-You Zhang, Ying-Yong Wang
2020, 41(2): 105-122. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.033

The genus-level recognition of monophyletic short-legged toads (Brachytarsophrys) has been recently implicated in the taxonomic debate of Megophrys sensu lato. In the present study, Brachytarsophrys is reasonably regarded as a distinct genus based on significant morphological differentiations and recent molecular analyses. Furthermore, a comprehensive review of this genus is performed, with two species groups proposed based on morphological differences and phylogenetic relationships. Particularly, Brachytarsophrys platyparietus is removed as a synonym of Brachytarsophrys carinense and considered a valid species due to significant genetic divergence and distinct morphological differences. In addition, a new species, Brachytarsophrys orientalis         sp        .         nov        ., is described based on a series of specimens collected from southeastern China. This work takes the member species of the genus Brachytarsophrys to seven, suggesting that the diversity of Brachytarsophrys is underestimated. In addition, the genus levels of other monophyletic groups within the subfamily Megophryinae are discussed.

13
A New Blind Cave Loach of Paracobitis With Comment on Its Characters Evolution
CHEN Yin-rui, YANG Jun-xing, Boris SKET, Gregor ALJANCIC
1998, 19(1): 59-61.
+ 摘要 (6537) PDF (87KB) (2556)
During February and March 1995,a Slovenian caving expedition led by Andrej Miheve in association with the Institute of Karst Geology from Guilin explored the karst region in Libo County,south of Guizhou,a province in China.During the expedition,3 blind loach specimens were collected by Gregor Aljancic,They have been recognized as a new species of the genus Paracobitis:P.longibarbatus sp.nov.The new species possesses the following characters:adipose keel is present along the dorsal and ventral edge of caudal peduncle,depth of adipose keel less than half of depth of caudal peduncle;nostrils are situated closely together,the anterior nostril formed into a tube with a long nostral barbel.These characters indicate that it belongs to the genus Paracobitis,regardless of the presence of a nostral barbel at the terminal of nostral tube.Similar nostral tube was observed also in P.variegatus longidorsalis Yang et al.The eyes and pigment are disappeared as the result of convergent evolution adapting to the lightless habitat.The same convergent phenomena are prevalent in the cavefishes of Cobitidae and Cyprinidae.This new species is the first blind loach in the genus Paracobitis,representing a specialized lineage of the genus.It is related to epigean P.variegatus longidorsalis which occurs in the same basin,Xijiang Basin.The new species can be easily distinguished from all congeneric species by the following characters:eyes and pigment disappeared,anterior nostril tube-like with a nostral barbel at the terminal;barbels,pectoral and pelvic fins well elongated;posterior margin of caudal fin strongly concave.
14
The pathological role of ferroptosis in ischemia/reperfusion-related injury
Hong-Fa Yan, Qing-Zhang Tuo, Qiao-Zhi Yin, Peng Lei
2020, 41(3): 220-230. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.042

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a pathological process that occurs in numerous organs throughout the human body, and it is frequently associated with severe cellular damage and death. Recently it has emerged that ferroptosis, a new form of regulated cell death that is caused by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, plays a significantly detrimental role in many I/R models. In this review, we aim to revise the pathological process of I/R and then explore the molecular pathogenesis of ferroptosis. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the role that ferroptosis plays in I/R, providing evidence to support the targeting of ferroptosis in the I/R pathway may present as a therapeutic intervention to alleviate ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) associated cell damage and death.

15
A review on the bioinformatics pipelines for metagenomic research
YE Dan-Dan, FAN Meng-Meng, GUAN Qiong, CHEN Hong-Ju, MA Zhan-Shan
2012, 33(6): 574-585. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2012.06574
+ 摘要 (6242)
Metagenome, a term first dubbed by Handelsman in 1998 as “the genomes of the total microbiota found in nature”, refers to sequence data directly sampled from the environment (which may be any habitat in which microbes live, such as the guts of humans and animals, milk, soil, lakes, glaciers, and oceans). Metagenomic technologies originated from environmental microbiology studies and their wide application has been greatly facilitated by next-generation high throughput sequencing technologies. Like genomics studies, the bottle neck of metagenomic research is how to effectively and efficiently analyze the gigantic amount of metagenomic sequence data using the bioinformatics pipelines to obtain meaningful biological insights. In this article, we briefly review the state-of-the-art bioinformatics software tools in metagenomic research. Due to the differences between the metagenomic data obtained from whole genome sequencing (i.e., shotgun metagenomics) and amplicon sequencing (i.e., 16S-rRNA and gene-targeted metagenomics) methods, there are significant differences between the corresponding bioinformatics tools for these data; accordingly, we review the computational pipelines separately for these two types of data.
16
Antimicrobial peptides: new hope in the war against multidrug resistance
James Mwangi, Xue Hao, Ren Lai, Zhi-Ye Zhang
2019, 40(6): 488-505. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2019.062
+ 摘要 (6007) PDF (843KB) (1911)
The discovery of antibiotics marked a golden age in the revolution of human medicine. However, decades later, bacterial infections remain a global healthcare threat, and a return to the pre-antibiotic era seems inevitable if stringent measures are not adopted to curb the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistance and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. In hospital settings, multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, including carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) bearing Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae are amongst the most problematic due to the paucity of treatment options, increased hospital stay, and exorbitant medical costs. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) provide an excellent potential strategy for combating these threats. Compared to empirical antibiotics, they show low tendency to select for resistance, rapid killing action, broad-spectrum activity, and extraordinary clinical efficacy against several MDR strains. Therefore, this review highlights multidrug resistance among nosocomial bacterial pathogens and its implications and reiterates the importance of AMPs as next-generation antibiotics for combating MDR superbugs.
17
Discovery of a wild, genetically pure Chinese giant salamander creates new conservation opportunities
Jing Chai, Chen-Qi Lu, Mu-Rong Yi, Nian-Hua Dai, Xiao-Dong Weng, Ming-Xiao Di, Yong Peng, Yong Tang, Qing-Hua Shan, Kai Wang, Huan-Zhang Liu, Hai-Peng Zhao, Jie-Qiong Jin, Ru-Jun Cao, Ping Lu, Lai-Chun Luo, Robert W. Murphy, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jing Che
2022, 43(3): 469-480. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.101
Effective conservation of threatened biota relies on accurate assessments and scientific guidance. As an unfortunate example, Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias, CGS) remain critically endangered in nature. Misguided conservation efforts, e.g., commercial propagation and releasing of millions of likely non-indigenous or interspecific hybrids, have further compromised conservation initiatives. Limited information on wild populations of CGS poses a significant conservation challenge. Following 18-month long field monitoring, we now report the discovery of a wild population of CGS in a closed nature reserve in Jiangxi Province, China. Genomic assessments reveal its genetic distinctiveness and do not detect genetic admixture with other species. Based on morphological and molecular evidences, we describe this CGS as a new species Andrias jiangxiensis sp. nov. This is the only known species of CGS today with a genetically pure, reproducing, in situ population. This discovery emphasizes the important role that closed nature reserves play in protecting species, and the necessity of integrating long-term field monitoring and genetic assessments. It sets a new pathway for discovering and conserving endangered species, especially for those biotas that are similarly being extirpated by anthropogenic translocations and overexploitation.
18
Diversifying on the Ark: multiple new endemic lineages of dwarf geckos from the Western Ghats provide insights into the systematics and biogeography of South Asian Cnemaspis (Reptilia: Squamata)
Saunak Pal, Zeeshan A. Mirza, Princia Dsouza, Kartik Shanker
2021, 42(6): 675-691. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2021.074
The highly speciose gekkonid genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 is polyphyletic, with three distantly related and geographically isolated clades from Africa, South Asia (SA), and Southeast Asia. At present, there are 85 known species within SA Cnemaspis, although the number continues to increase rapidly with focused surveys and rigorous taxonomic work. Recent studies have provided valuable insights into the diversity and evolutionary history of SA Cnemaspis; however, most of these studies lack sufficient sampling in the Western Ghats (WG), where the genus has its greatest diversity. We addressed this research gap by conducting extensive sampling across the WG and re-examining museum specimens, thus providing a systematic account of various extant Cnemaspis species along with their distribution and natural history. We described 12 new species and a southern WG endemic clade of SA Cnemaspis. Ten of the newly described species are endemic to the forests of the southern WG. We also identified 10 well-supported subclades that can be separated across morphological, geographic, and phylogenetic axes. A time-calibrated phylogeny and ancestral area reconstructions confirmed the Paleocene origin of SA Cnemaspis in the WG and provide insights into its evolutionary history and biogeography. The discovery of multiple endemic and deeply divergent lineages further highlights the evolutionary significance of the WG for lizards.
19
Feces Analysis and Its Role in Wildlife Research
LIU Bing-wan, JIANG Zhi-gang
2002, 23(1): 71-76.
+ 摘要 (5169) PDF (284KB) (2495)
Traditional feces analysis method can be applied to the research of population size,home range,food composition,parasites and diseases in wild animals.Due to the invasive tissue and blood sampling in the wild animals is no long practicable in the field,fecal samples are easy to collect,easy to keep after simple treatment and noninvasive to the wild animals,the modern fecal analysis makes many studies possible with the development of the molecular biology technology.This paper reviewed the fecal analysis and its application in the fields of studying home range,food compositions,digestive dynamics,disease and parasite,population survey,population genetics,minimum viable population,food chain and food web,energy flow and material flow of wild animals.
20
Breast cancer animal models and applications
Li Zeng, Wei Li, Ce-Shi Chen
2020, 41(5): 477-494. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.095
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Basic and translational breast cancer research relies heavily on experimental animal models. Ideally, such models for breast cancer should have commonality with human breast cancer in terms of tumor etiology, biological behavior, pathology, and response to therapeutics. This review introduces current progress in different breast cancer experimental animal models and analyzes their characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and potential applications. Finally, we propose future research directions for breast cancer animal models.
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