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Parasitism is always costly to the host

Nan Lyu Wei Liang

Nan Lyu, Wei Liang. Parasitism is always costly to the host. Zoological Research, 2021, 42(2): 217-220. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.332
Citation: Nan Lyu, Wei Liang. Parasitism is always costly to the host. Zoological Research, 2021, 42(2): 217-220. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.332

对宿主而言,被寄生总是有代价的

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.332

Parasitism is always costly to the host

Funds: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31672298 to N.L., 31772453 and 31970427 to W.L.)
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  • 摘要: 最近欧洲的研究认为,宿主鸟类喂养寄生性的杜鹃雏鸟并没有比喂养宿主自己的雏鸟有“额外”的代价,并据此强调,正因为“额外”的代价不大,所以许多宿主尽管被杜鹃寄生,却并没有进化出相关的反寄生策略。到底被寄生是否可导致宿主反寄生防御行为,如卵识别、雏鸟识别等的进化?为此,我们通过一个简单的模型来计算宿主被寄生后的实时和未来代价后发现,被寄生对宿主总是有代价的,而学习性卵识别能力的进化则有利于克服这些代价。此外,与之前的模型(Lotem, 1993: Nature)不同,我们的改进模型显示,在喂养寄生性杜鹃的雏鸟有代价时,宿主可进化出学习性的雏鸟识别能力,尽管有错误印记杜鹃雏鸟的潜在风险。因此,我们认为,喂养寄生性的杜鹃雏鸟即便没有比喂养自己的雏鸟付出更多的、“额外”的代价,但这“没有额外代价”其实不能作为解释宿主为什么没有进化出反寄生防御行为的理由和证据:对宿主来说,被寄生总是有代价的,并可导致宿主反寄生防御行为的进化。
  • Figure  1.  A common cuckoo nestling fed by its Oriental reed warbler host parent (Photo by Jian Yang)

    Figure  2.  Schematics of host fitness models

    A: Host fitness model (see explanation in main text). P: Probability of a host being parasitized; x: Average fitness of a non-parasitized host; c: Immediate cost for a non-parasitized host; c': Immediate cost for a parasitized host; ∆c: Future cost for a non-parasitized host; ∆c': Future cost for a parasitized host. B: Host fitness model with egg recognition defense (see explanation in main text). b represents net benefits obtained by host after rejecting cuckoo egg. Other parameters are as in Figure 2A. C: Host fitness model with nestling recognition defense (see explanation in main text). b represents net benefits obtained by host after rejecting cuckoo nestling. Other parameters are as in Figure 2A.

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-16
  • 录用日期:  2021-01-05
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-01-25
  • 刊出日期:  2021-03-18

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