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1991年  第12卷  第1期

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研究论文
Tracheliastes and Pseudotracheliastes are two genera belonging to the subfamily Tracheliastinae of the family Lernaeopodidae.In China four species of Tracheliastes and one species of Pseudotracheliastes are involved.In present paper,Tracheliastes polycolpus,T.brevicorpus and Pseudotracheliastes soldatovi yangtzensis are selected ar representatives of two genera,by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)for the first time.The result of observation on the structure of labrum and labium is not the same in comparison with the result under the light microscope.The lateral side of labium is single in form and does not divide into two lobes.Consequently the authors revised this structure as above described.As others,no conspicuous difference is observed.
5 dead White-naped Cranes were collected from Anhui Province during winter.4 of them were anatomized to observe the macro and micro structures,another one was made into a casting mould specimen for the observation of the form and distribution of air sacs.
The present paper reports 3 new species of the genus Myospila Rondani,1856 from Guizhou,China.All the type-specimens are kept in the authors laboratory.
A new species of Steinernema is described,the holotype,allotype and some of the paratype are kept in south China Agricultural University.Some of the paratype are kept in Guangzhou Teachers College.
This paper deals with the migrations of the black cutworm moth (Agrotis ypsilon Rott.) and the energy source and climative faetors.Observation stations were setting up on Baima snow mountain,Yunnan Province,and the throughout the year observed periodically the migratory population dynamics of the black cutworm moth,in 1985 to 1988.
The territories and territorial behavior of Grus vipio were studied in Lindian County of Heilongjiang province from March to May,1986-1988.Eight territories were investigated.The result shows that each breedingpair have successively occupied the same territory for many years.During pre-incubation,the average size of territory is 7.0 km.On the proceeding of breeding of most period,the size of the territory were gradually reduced to 1.5 square km.Not until nestling period.The territories of most of the cranes include a little crop fiel as fixed foraging field,which are smaller than the territories not containing crop field.
In this paper,the Buff-breasted rat Rattus flavipectus was collected from the Hangzhou city,Zhejiang province.We used the lens weight to divide 893 speciemens into 4 groups:juvenile,subadult,adult and senior.The age structures of the population in October,1983 and 1988 were analysed.Several characters such as teeth wear,body weight and body length were also used to estimate the ages and were compared with lens weight.
The authors have observed and studied the ecology of Lesser Bamboo Rat (Cannomys badius Hodgson),in March,April,1985 and July,1986,including its morphological characters,the structure of the tunnel system,foods,reproduction and behavior.The Lesser Bamboo Rat distribute in Yingjiang,Ruili,Menglian Yunnan province,China.The Lesser Bamboo Rat is a typical animal living undergroud.They stay in the mountain slope of rubber plantation,bush,broadleaf forest and vegetable garden,stay in tropic and subtropic zones from 300 m to 950 m.The structure of the tunnel system of the Lesser Bamboo Rat is rather complex,including hillocks,food gathering tunnels,nests and refuging tunnel,with a total length as 14.7 to 57.5 m.Important food of the Lesser Bamboo Rats are roots and stems of Thysanolaena maxima and Arundo donax,and roots of Hevea brasiliensis.They may eat Bambusa multiplex,Imperata cylindrica,Castanopsis spp.,Lithocarpus spp.,Lophatherum gracile,Colocasia esculenta and Musa wilsonii 18 species plants.Sexual maturity of the Lesser Bamboo Rat is about 1 year,birth season is from 3 to 5 months in Yingjiang,Yunnan,gastation period,about 40-43 days,the number of young,2-3.
This paper reports the result of works on 5 plots of the seasonal rainforest at Manyanguang,Damenglong in Xishuangbanna in 1987-1988.The insect specimens were collected in dry (January,May) and rainy (August) seasons.Major research is based on numbers of individuals,species,genera and families to study the diversity,evenness and dominance of the communities and the seasonal changes of populations of hemipterous insects.1.In the different plots of the level structure of seasonal rainforest,the species,gendera,families,individuals and diversity index of hemipterous insects in the plots E,S,W,N of forest edge more than insects in plot O of the ecntre forest.The forest marginal effect was quite clear.2.Making a comparison among numbers of individuals,species,genera,families and diversity index of insects in different layers of 5 plots of the vertical structure of seasonal rainforest,the most number was in middle layer,especially in the crisscross space where high of the herb layer and young scrab layer were 1.5-2 m,the species and amount of the insects were the most and the aboundantest.
This paper reported the treatment of S180 EAC ascites of mice with crotaline snake venoms and antivenin.After inoculating S180,EAC ascites to mice,then injected Agkistrodon acutus and A.halys venoms and Agkistrodon acutus,A.halys antivenin,the injected mice survived longer than control group and their inoculation rates decreased,but they cannot completely prohibit the growth of S180 and EAC ascites.The cancer cells showed the changes of necrosis,fibrosis etc.The analysis of S180 ascites showed the activities of arginine esterase and fibrinolysis.The activities of arginine esterase and fibrinolysis are the same as that of snake crude venoms.The treatment effect of injecting antivenin is the same as that of injecting crude venom,therefore we consider that the crude venoms can treat S180 and EAC ascites may be relative to the antibodies produced by mice.
The inhibition of RVV from different source on platelet aggregation induced by ADP,Collagen or Ristocetin were studied.RVV-B,RVV-S and RVV-Styp could inhibited aggregation induced by above reagents.RVV-T could inhibited aggregation induced by ADP and Collagen,but not by Ristocetin.Platelets preincubated with RVV were resuspended in PPP after washed.It was observed that platelets preincubated with RVV-Styp could entirely restored to respond to Ristocetin,but only partially with RVV-B and RVV-S.These results shown that two distinct platelet inhibitory activities in RVV exist,the mechanism of the inhibition could involved platelet,plasma and other factors.
The spider crude venom (SV) was extracted from lyophilized poison glands of Lycosa singoriensis and was fractionated by means of chromatography on Sephadex G-25 into 8 fractions.It was shown that the minimal dosa of SV to kill 50% (MD50) of the cultured human lung adenocarcinoma cells (SPC-A1) was 25 μg/ml,whereas even 600 μg/ml of SV killed only 30% of the cultured human embryonic lung cells.Human lymphocytes were nearly as resistant as the embryonic lung cells and MD50 of SV on human erythrocytes was more than 4000 μg/ml.The cytopathic activity on the adenocarcinoma cells was found in fractions Ⅲ,Ⅳ and Ⅷ.Moreover,the cytopathic activity of fraction Ⅳ and Ⅷ was found to be heat resistant (100 ℃,30 min),but that of fraction Ⅲ was disappeared after the heat treatment.
In this paper the levels of trace elements in giant pandas hair with different health state and normal conditions was studied by PIXE and the rates of trace element contents in various samples to Zn have been tested separately.Changes of element contents differ from each other on each type of samples.There are correlation in poor appetite,haomochrome lessing,epilesy and cancer with aefect of Cr,Fe,change of ratio in Ca,and of Cu to Zn separately.Authors believe that it is useful to accumulate information for further study in relation between di eases and trace elements in higher animal kungdom to supply the raising of giant panda as reference material.
The rapid identification of shake venom in snakebite is very helpful to the treatment of the snakebite.We have purified three kinds of antibody Fab of snake venoms by affinity chromatography on different immobilized snake venom,in order to avoid crossimmunoreaction.Horseradish peroxidase was coupled to these Fab fragments by the periodate method.We have developed a sandwich enzyme-immunoassay,which is capable of detecting <5 ng of snake venom in about 90 minutes.This assay used in clinical identification of snake venom has achieved satisfied results.
Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) is an oxidoreductase which catalyzes the resversion conversion of phruvate to lactate.The five isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase are tetramers composed of four polypeptide chains of two types subunits A and B (or M and H).The five isoenzymes have been demonstrated in all mammalian tissues,cells and serum.Tree shrew is a specific kind of animal between insectivora and primate.It is one of the most suitable research materials for experimental medicine,experimental pathology and evolutional biology.The present paper deals with the analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of eight different tissues of tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).The eight tissues are:heart,lung,submaxillary gland,spleen,kidney,adrenal gland,skeletal muscle and brain.The electrophoresis was performed on 0.5% agarose gel thin layer in a Ph 8.6 buffer containing 0.06 mol/L sodium diethylbarbiturate,0.2 N hydrochloric acid.The isoenzymic activity was visualized with a stanining solution consisting of sodium DL-lactate,nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD),N-methylphenazinium methylsulphate (PMS) and nitro-tetrazolium blue chloride (NBT).The electropherograms of LDH isoenzymes was scanned record at λs=570 nm and λr=500 nm,scanning speed for 20 mm/min.Five different molecular forms of isoenzymes and alterations of isoenzymic patterns were obserbed in the eight tissues of tree shrew.The isoenzymic phenotypes of five molecular forms are LCH1,LDH2,LDH3,LDH4,LDH5,in heart,submaxillary gland and brain,only the phenotype of skeletal muscle were LDH5,LDH4,LDH3,LDH2,LDH1.The LDH4 to LDH1 isoenzymes migrated towards the anode and LDH5 isoenzyme toward the cathode in the Ph 8.6 buffer.LDH1 is the fastest and LDH5 the slowest in the electrophoresis.The mean values of the five components of LDH isoenzymes in eight itssues were measured.The percentage of H subunit was calculated with the formula H%=LDH1%+3/4 LDH2%+1/2 LDH3%+1/4 LDH4%.The H/M subunits ratio was 2.3,0.9,1.5,1.0,1.6,0.94,0.55 and 1.8 in above mentioned eight tissues,respectively.
In this study,mitotic metaphase of Drososphila albomicans with B-chromosomes were found in Kunming population.Their frequency of presence of B-chromosomes were 69.1%.At present,among D.albomicans has been studied from several localities,the frequency of B-chromosomes of Kunming population were the hightest.The number of B-chromosomes varied from 1 to 6 and differed between each iso-femals line of them as well as that of between individuals and cells.All the B-chromosomes were the smallest,dot-shaped of the karyotype.Both C-band and G-band staining are positive for B-chromosomes.