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1990年  第11卷  第3期

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研究论文
Observation on inner surface of eggshell membrane,inner surface of shell of Japanese Crested Ibis,world unique kird,with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was firstly conducted.Microstructure showed:Eggshell membrane inner surface consisted of dense fibres with bud projections and crossed into nets.Shell inner surface consisted of mammillary cones and fibres,tangential section of mammillary cone look like flower.Shell outer surface was similar to that of calliformes showed crystal layers with crachs.ICP emission spectroscopy and atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry were used to make quantitative analysis on 26 inorganic elements of the eggshell comparisons of harmful elements were done between eggshells of two nests,and between soils of two nesting areas.We conclude that it is necessary to study "environmental factors" in Japanese Crested Ibis population protection in nature.
The surrounding membranes (chorion) of the eggs in two Chinese fishes (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus,Megalobrama amblycephala) are all solid.The sperm penetrating into the mature egg is restricted in the micropylar canal of the chorion.There is a funnel-like depression at the opening of the micropylar canal and an outer opening of the canal is situated at the bottom of the depression,therefore this depression is the vestibule of the micropyle apparatus.There are whirlpool-like structures on the bottom surface of the depression and the inner wall of the micropylar canal.According to computation,there exist in the upper whirlpool of the micropyle powerful centripetal forces,which collect sperms and draw the sperms into the micropylar canal.Before fertilization of these studied fsihes,there is physical movement which forces sperms into the mature eggs,besides the chemical substances secreted by the mature eggs and sperms.On the basis of the law of individual variability,it is inferred that some kinds of fishes in the southern hemisphere perhapes have right whirlpool-like struture of the micropyle,because there are left whirlpool-like structures of the micropyle studied fishes in the northern hemisphere.
The present paper describes three new species of Thysanoptera collected from Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province.All the type specimens are deposited in the south china Agricultural University.
The effect of the explotation to vegetation distributed the water body environment of mountain on community structure of Amphibia was reported in present paper.The results of investigation indicate that the ecotype of primitive everygress broad-leaf forest not be destroied where the amphibican community consisted of 12 Abyra species and the diversity index was 2.41.The ecotype that the primitive vegetation were felt and changed into the secondary forest in which 9 species lived and community 1.97.While in the ecotype where the primitive forest were felt seriously and fired and changed into as peteridium grassland and grass marshland,there are 6 and 5 species and community was 0.70 and 0.57 respectively.Therefore the destroied degree of the forest that amphibian inhabited be possessed of the decisive effect on the structure and dynamics of amphibian community.
From the winter of 1987 to the early spring of 1988,we had been observing the solitary takins (Budorcas taxicolor) in the Tangjiahe Natural Reserve and achieved the material on their number,distribution and action laws in winter.Further more we still had done deeper researches on their behavioural ecology,overwintering adaptation and the limited factors of their death.All these takins are either old or weak of ill or physically disabled.They leave their clump and live alone.It is an inevitable law in their individual development.That they are getting weaker day by day and are on the verge of death is also an inevitable tendency.
The present paper concerns the variance of the sexual hormone in blood of three kinds of TESTUDOFORMES in different periods.The conclusions may be summarized as follows:1.With regard to the three kinds of male animals,the amount of sexual hormone in blood plasma of Clemmys mutica is the highest (304.46±292.15 ng/dl),whereas Trionyx sinensis Wiegmann is the lowest (122.31±64.44 ng/dl).2.With regard to female animals,the amount of sexual hormone in blood plasma of Trionyx sinensis Wiegmann is the highest (75.93±67.35 pg/ml),whereas Chinemys reevesii is the lowest (50.16±35.75 pg/ml).3.Since the amount of testosterone in blood of male animals in the mating period is larger than that of in the non-mating period,it is suggested that the testosterone is related to the formation of sperms.4.The amount of estradiol in female ones is always changed with the development of ovarion cycle.
six types of cells have been studied by means of indirect immunofluorescence staining method,using four kinds of human CREST scleroderma autoimmune antikinetochore serum which were separately taken from Shanghai,Beijing,the United States of America.The six types of cells are Hep-2 cell strain from human laryngeal carcinoma,the bone marrow cells of Gekko swinhonis,the bone marrow cells of Bufo bufo,CIK cell line from the kideney of Ctecopharyngodon idellus,C6/36 cell strain of Aedes albopictus,the root apical cells of Allium cepa L.The four kinds of serum were found to display discrete spots in all six types of cells by immunofluorescence.The number of spots per cell corresponds to the chromosome number in the cell types observed.In Hep-2 cells,the spots only exist in the kinetochore region of mitotic chromosomes,and each chromosome has two fluorescent spots.The results reveal that the kinetochore antigen preserves high conservation in evolution,and it possesses similar antigenicity in mammalian,reptilian,amphibian,fish,insectan and plant cells.The significance of the extensive conservation have been also discussed.In addition,the nature of the kinetochore antigen has been studied.The results of cytochemical analysis show that the antigen possesses complete similar antigenic nature in Hep-2 cells and the bone marrow cells of Bufo bufo.The kinetochore antigen is tightly bound non-histones.Its site (s) sensitive to proteslytic enzymes is (are) not exposed to outside,it is not complexed with DNA or RNA and is not extracted by 4M Urea/2M NaCI,it is risistant to 0.1M HCI,0.07M NaOH,but is partly destroyed by acetic acid.Finally,the methods taken in this study may be directly used to detect antikinetochore antibody in clinical diagnosis,so the study have some practical significance.
Neighboring paraffin sections of pancreas of rat were performed with immunocytochemistry (PAP method and protein A gold-silver method).It was found that positive immunocytochemical reaction of Met-enkephalin and glucagon appeared in the same cells (I.e.A cell) of endocrine pancreas after a series of test for specificity of the reaction.According to some works reported previously,some other regulative neuropeptides exist in endocrine pancreas too,it could be concluded that the function of islet may be affected by a complicated neuro-humoral regulative system (including paracrine and autocrine regulation).The meaning of the coexistance of Met-enkephalin with other neuropeptides in the glucagon cell of Langerhan islet were discussed.
From March,1987 to June,1988 we worked on the fasting endurance and loss of energy materials at night of Pycnonotus xanthorrhous in Kunming,Yunan,China.P.xanthorrhous is a common and resident species in Yunan.Kunming is in the southwest of China (24°23′-25°36′N,102°14′-103°03′E).The seasonal changes is small.The paper reports the fasting endurance of P.xanthorrhous was 19 hours.When they died,the reserve of fat declined 79%,the non-fat flight muscle declined 46%,and the sugar of liver declined 96%.At night P.xanthorrhous lost the great amount of fat reserve,especially exhausted the highest percent lipeds at the night of winter.The energy provived by sugar of liver was very little.During breeding and moulting period,the flight muscle lost the great amount of protein reserve at night to supply the needs of birds.
The present paper deals with a preliminary exploration for the studies on background values of 18 elements and 17 amino acids in Chinese"insect herb" (Cordyceps sinensis) by using mathematical method of cluster analysis.From five groups of ghost moths larvae of different instars,four groups of Chinese "insect herb" mycelia were grown on the medium,parasitized larva and the sporocarps of Cordyceps sinensis,were divided into 12 genera.According to coefficients of distance matrix among the samples,the 12 genera originally classified can beg reclassified into 3 genera at 8.66 distance level through cluster analysis.The results obtained are:1.The constituents of fourth and fifth instar larva,on the elements and amino acids,approached that of Chinese "insect herb" (Cordyceps sinensis).2.It is necessary to use the old mycelia of Chinese "insect herb" fungus,grown on the agar medium,or spores of Cordyceps sinensis as a test sample were the most suitable to infect the hepialid larvae.
Lactate dehydrogenase isozyme of 3 species of catfish,I.e.Clarias fuscus,C.macrocephalus,C.lazera and their F1 hybrids,C.macrocephalus×C.fuscus,C.fuscus×C.lazera and C.macrocephalus×C.lazera,were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.These catfish all show the same electrophoretic mobility of LDH-A4 isozyme.The B4 isozyme of C.lazera has a slower mobility than that of other two species.C.fuscus and C.macrocephalus shows 5 bands encoded by A,B loci and C.lazera shows 3.Liver homogenates reveal LDH-C isozyme that migrated cathodal to the A4 isozyme.This isozyme has the same mobility in all samples.In C.macrocephalus and C.lazera,the brain tissue also shows the cathodal isozyme.The F1 hybrids posses some LDH isozymes that encoded by the gene loci from their parents.In C.macrocephalus×C.fuscus,all five bands are the same as that in its parents.In other two hybrids,the isozyme shows heterozygosity.According to the isozyme phenotypes we discussed evolution,inheritance and cross breeding problems in these catfish.
The isozyme phenotypes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),malate dehydrogenase (MDH),glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and esterase (EST) between gynogenetic haploid and diploid of Rana limnochris were compared by polyacrylamide gel slab-electrophoresis.The results show that there are many differences in activities and bands between their corresponding isozymes.With these results,we are of the opinion that the abnormal expression of the isozyme genes of the haploid genome is due to lack of the interaction through another genome.
In this paper,enzymic properties of two thrombin-like enzymes (principle Ⅰ and principle Ⅱ) was reported.The results showed that principle Ⅰ and principle Ⅱ could convert human fibrinogen into fibrin,both had arginine esterase activity and could hydrolyze Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-PNA which was special substrate of thrombin.Principle Ⅰ and principle Ⅱ had an activated fibrinolysis and principle Ⅱ also had a direct fibrinolysis as showed by plate method of fibrin,principle Ⅰ and principle Ⅱ could slowly degrade the α chain of fibrinogen and principle Ⅰ also could further degrade the β chain of fibrinogen.The active center of principle Ⅰ is a serine protease and has a glycosyl site.The optimal temperature was 50℃ and the optimal pH was 8.6 for principle Ⅰ to hydrolyze BAEE.
This paper reports the chromosome preparation and karyotype studies of the three species in Buccinidae.The gonads were dissected from the animals and chromosome slides were made.Buccinum Pemphigum:The diploid number was found to be 30 and the total number of chromosomal arms (NF) to be 56.All the chromosomes matched into 15 pairs,divided into three groups:8 pairs of metacentric chromosomes,5 pairs of submetacentric chromosomes,and 2 pairs of telocentric chromosome.Plicifusus scissuratus:The diploid chromosome number was found to be 34,and the total number of chromosomal arms (NF) to be 64.All the chromosomes could be matched into 17 pairs,divided into three types:10 pairs of metacentric chromosomes,5 pairs of submetacentric chromosomes,and pairs of 2 telocentric chromosomes.Neptunea cumingi:The diploid chromosome number was found to be 60 and the total number of cbromosomal arms (NF) to be 112.All the chromosomes could be matched into 30 pairs,divided into three types:15 pairs of metacentric chromosomes,11 pairs of submtacentric chromosomes,and 4 pairs of telocentric chromosomes.The evolution of gastropoda relates,presumably,to the increase of the number of chromosomes.