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1989年  第10卷  第1期

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研究论文
The karyotypes of species of Charadriiform birds were studied with colchicine-hypotonic-air drying technique from bone marrow cells.The results were given as follows:Charadriidae:Vanellus vanellus,2n=76;Charadrius dubius,2n=76;C.alexandrinus,2n=76;Pluvialis squatarola,2n=76;Scolopacidae:Tringa nebularia,2n=88;Arenaria interpres,2n=88;Gallinago gallinago,2n=88;G.stenura,2n=88;Scolopax rusticola,2n=88;Calidris alpinus,2n=88 We found that the 7 species of plovers had fewer and larger macrochromosomes than the 9 species of spipes.It was probable that the karyotypes of snipes were relatively specialized and were evolved from the karyotypes of plovers by aseries centric fissions of macrochromosomes.In Charadriiformes,the 2 species of Haematopodidac,1 specie of recurvirostridae and 1 specie of Burhinidae shared the same karyotvpe with plovers,and the 2 species of Jacanidae shared the same karyotype with shipes.The comparative studies of karyotypes showed that the Charadriiformes birds may have two different origins.It was very interesting that the data of DNAhybridizations from Shbley (1987) showed the same results.
seasonal changes in spermatogenesis of adult tree shrews from field in Kunming,Yunnan,were investigated.Maximum aeragc diameters of seminiferous tubules are present in April (205.7 μm) and minimum in October (88.4 μm).There are highly active seminiferous epitheliums with clear epithelial cycle of 12 successive stages and typical cell associations of various stages in January and April.Regression of seminiferous tubules begins in July and there are extensive regressive changes in seminiferous epitheliums losing spermatogenic function in August and October.Similar seasonal changes in spermatozoa amount are shown in epididymis.These results suggest that a seasonal cycle of spermatogenic activity occur obviously in this species.The seasonal changes of reproduction may be regulated by local environmental factors,such as photoperiod.
13 adult Rhinopithecus,includes R.bieti and R.brelichi were analysed on the long bone and skeletal allometry.Somethings about limbs,skeletal trunk length (STL) and predicted body weight are dealed,From the results,we can see that the length of the forelimb increases faster than that of hindlimb,during the mature this adapte to climbing on the vertical supports.Reduction of both limbs serves to move the animals climbing center closer to the support,and this is correlated with the higher intermembral index.Considering the STL,humerus,radius,femur and tibia,Rhinopithecus is closer to Theropithecus,Papio,Presbytis,Macaca and Nasalis.So we hypothesis that Rhinopithecus live on the ground for most of the time.But for the eating,resting and escaping the danger in the trees.Brachiation,suspension rarely happen to them.
We have observed outstanding inhibition of sarcoma 180 to ehrlich asciters in vitro and vivo of the nice. After inoculation Bungarus fasciatus,Najanaja venoms which is purified from B.fasciatus,Naja naja and Ophiophagus into mice with S180,EAC,survival rate increased than normal (P<0.001) and it delay the survival time and decrease the inoculating mice to transplant to other mices.But the effects of P.O.or injection of B.multicinctus are not evident.only act at the level of cell membrane,but also at the level of nuclear membrane leading to the change in various parts of the cells and the cytotoxin effects in vivo and in vitro are discussed in paper as well.
In this paper a new speeies of Genus Trichocephalus (Trichocephalidae,Trichocephalata) is described from the golden monkey,Phino pithecus bieti Milne-Edwards collected from Wehsi Country,Yunnan Province,China.
This paper deals with the basic biology of woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausm.)for the effective control of this pest.The base development temperature was 13.42℃ for the first instar,9.45℃ for the second instar,6.57℃ for the third instar,5.34℃ for the fourth instar respectively.Effective thermal summation of the whole generation was 186.98 day-degree.Maximum mean fecundity of each female was 91.58 under 25℃ condition.The developmental models of various instars with temperature were given as follows:100/N=30/[1+EXP(5.799-0.2719T)] for instar one 100/N=59/[1+EXP(3.636-0.1842T)] for inatar two 100/N=50/[1+EXP(2.834-0.1937T)] for instar three 100/N=44/[1+EXP(3.321-0.2091T)] for instar four 100/N=11/[1+EXP(4.230-0.2121T)] for whole generation.
This paper reports studies on colony structure and life cycle of the spined ant,Polyrhachis vicina Roger.Studies were carried out at hillsides 10 kilometers from southeast of Yongkang town,Zhejiang province and in the laboratory during the period from 1984 to 1986.One crop of adults was produced each year.They overwintered as queens,males,workers,eggs and Larvae.The eggs and larvae in the winter showed little growth until the following spring,When the weather became warm and then development proceeded rapidly.Adult workers emrged continuously from May to November,males eclosed from August to November,while females eclosed only in October.females entered home nests or other neighbouring nests after mating flights,and then lost their wings and becamc queens.The nests were polygynous.
This paper reports the preliminary observation on the diurnal and nocturnal activity of Musca domestica Linnaeus,which was carried out in Yaan from 1983 to 1984.The main results obtained from this study are briefly summarized as follows.
This paper presents comparative studies of the karyotypes of three species of Neoaplectana nematodes.The karyotypes of the gonadal cells and the ombryonic cells of N.glaseri(NC513,85011),N,carpocapsae (DD-136) and N.bibionis were studied.Slides were made by the squash techniquc with orcein staining.The results obtained from this study indicate that three species of ncmatodes show a 2N condition of nine chromosomes for the males,ten for the females,but they are different in karyotypes from one species to another.(The karyotype formulae):N.glaseri (NC513,85011)2n=4m+6t(♀)2n=4m+5t(♂);N.carpocapsae (DD-136)2n=8m+2t(♀)2n=7m+2t(♂);N.bibionis 2n=6m+4t(♀)2n=5m+4t(♂).In the last part of this paper,we compared and analyzed the karyotypes of three species and discussed the evolutionary relationship of their karyotypes.
The Pardosa astrigera is one kind of widely distributed spider that has high population in shanxi province.The pardosa astrigera can catch and eat destructive insects for the agriculture.It can have two generations a year.The first generation is from the beginning of April to that of July;the second is from the end of July to the beginning of April of the next year.A generation last about 88.3 days,but the overwintering generation last about 250 days.The adult and juvenile safoly can pass through the winter.The temperature is in 20-30℃ during the studiums of the Pardosa astrigera,time shortens as the temperature increases. It can have two generations a year.The first generation is from the beginning of April to that of July;the second is from the end of July to the beginning of April of the next year.A generation last about 88.3 days,but the overwintering generation last about 250 days.The adult and juvenile safoly can pass through the winter.The temperature is in 20-30℃ during the studiums of the Pardosa astrigera,time shortens as the temperature increases.