1999 Vol. 20, No. 4
1999, 20(4): 241-246.
Transgenic mice carrying the human poliovirus receptor (PVRTg21) were inoculated intraspinally with 3 poliovirus vaccine type 3 (WHO/Ⅲ,93/363 and 3J) and 1 wild virus (Leon).The clinical data and pathological data indicated that Leon viruses were the most strong neurovirulent.Even a dose of 100 TCID could make 100% of the Transgenic mice paralysis and death.When inoculated with 5.5 log TCID of the vaccine reference (WHO/Ⅲ),only 87.1% of the mice paralyzed and 51.7% of the mice died,and the other 2 lots of poliomyelitis vaccine (93/363 and 3J) were higher in the neurovirulence than the vaccine reference (WHO/Ⅲ).A good correlation was found between the monkey neurovirulence test (MNVT) and the PVRTg21 mouse neurovirulence test for the 3 vaccine lots.The experimental results showed that the PVRTg21 transgenic mice should possibly be an animal model for the neurovirulence evaluation of live poliomyelitis vaccines and epidemiological surveillance.
1999, 20(4): 247-251.
Twenty-six samples of Rattus norvegicus from 8 localities in China were used for the investigation of the genetic polymorphism by means of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) RFLP analysis.The mtDNA of each sample was digested with 12 restriction endonucleases,ApaⅠ,AvaⅠ,Bam HⅠ,BclⅠ,BglⅠ,ClaⅠ,Eco RⅠ,Eco RⅤ,Hin dⅢ,PvuⅡ,ScaⅠ and XbaⅠ.The fragment patterns were examined by agarose gel electrophoresis or by Southern hybridization with DIG-labeled mtDNA probe.Twenty restriction morphs have been recognized,which can be grouped into 11 haplotypes.Extensive mtDNA polymorphism was found between individual animals,within and among populations of Chinese R.norvegicus.Almost each of populations had distinct mtDNA haplotype,some with more than one type.The divergence for the 11 detected haplotypes ranged from 0.2% to 1.4%,comparable to that previously reported for the rats from the United States,Japanese and the laboratory type.The findings are helpful for understanding the dispersion and evolution of this animal.
1999, 20(4): 252-257.
A total of 201 blood samples including 9 indigenous pig breeds (Sus scrofa domesticus) in China and Yorkshine pigs were collected in order to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese pig breeds.Thirty blood protein loci were studied by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis,among which 6 loci (MDH,PEPB,AK,6PGD,ADA,PHI) were found to be polymorphic.The percentage of polymorphic loci (P),the mean individual heterozygosity (H) and the mean number of alleles (A) are 0.200,0.065 and 1.300,respectively.The degree of genetic variability of Chinese indigenous pig breeds as a whole was higher than that of goats,lower than those of cattle,horses and sheep.Using gene frequencies of the 30 loci,the pairwise genetic distance among the 9 indigenous breeds in China were calculated by software PHYLIP3.5 c.The phylogenetic trees were constructed using NJ and UPGMA methods.The results suggest that the geographical distribution do not consist with the genetic relationship among Chinese indigenous pig breeds.The genetic diversity among Chinese indigenous pig breeds is low.
This article reports chromosome diversity of 12 species of Tibetan fishes.The results of our experiment are as follows:1)Chromosome number and karyotype formula of Glyptosternum maculatum are 2n=48=20 m+12 sm+10 st+6 t,with other two kinds of 2n=44 and 2n=42,which doubt the Rens conclusion that it was the most advanced species in Sisorid fishes.2)Chromosome number and karyotype formulae of Triplophysa tibetana,Oxygymnocypris stewartii,Schizopygopsis younghusbandii,Schizothorax (Racoma) o connor and Schizothorax (Racoma) waltoni are 2n=50=14 m+4 sm+22 st+10 t,2n=86=24 m+12 sm+22 st+18 t,2n=94=22 m+8 sm+46 st+18 t,2n=106=24 m+26 sm+30 st+26 t,2n=112=26 m+24 sm+28 st+34 t,respectively,which differ from former conclusions.3)In this article,chromosome number,karyotype formulas and orignal pictures of Triplophysa microps and Gymnocypris waddelli,and karyotype formula,original picture of Schizothorax (R.) macropogon are firstly reported as 2n=50=16 m+12 sm+12 st+10 t,2n=94=24 m+14 sm+22 st+34 t,2n=102=20 m+28 sm+22 st+16 t,respectively.4)Chromosome number of Gymnocypris dobula is 2n=66,the least in Schizotho racin fishes,while that of Ptychobarbus dipogon is 2n=424-432,mostly rare in Vertebrata,which need further research. Lastly,the authors consider chromosome diversity among each species and genus in three groups (Schizothoracines,Cobitids and Sisorids) of Xizang (Tibet) fishes is abundant,showing not only obvious difference among species,genus and groups,but variation in one species,even in individual.It is supposed that this is concerned with the unstable surrounding during speciation.For a certain confidence in chromosome variation,only stable karyotype can be used as proof in taxonomy and evolution.
In the past years,we have extensively investigated the geographic distribution of B chromosomes (Bs) in natural populations of Drosophila albomicans in China.The karyotypes of 6.738 individuals from 572 isofemale lines in 24 populations were scored.The results revealed that Bs were widely distributed in all populations except Taiwan population.The number of Bs varied from 0 to 14 in different individuals.The frequency of occurrence was the highest in Hainan population,in which 87.7 percent of the individuals contained B chromosomes.Interestingly,we found the occurrence of Bs in D.albomicans displayed a cline pattern:the frequency increased from east to west,from south to north.Furthermore,correlation was found between Bs frequency and ecological condition of habitat.In terms of this correlation,we categorized these 24 populations into 5 ecological types:1) coastal hilly land populations,2)plateau populations,3) island populations,4) mountain populations,and 5) canyon populations.
1999, 20(4): 273-277.
Vocalization is lesser apes very prominent behavior,which is important when applied in the survey and conservation monitoring.Based on a field work in West Yunnan,this paper presents the timing characteristics of hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) songs and its comparison with other populations studied and with other species,especially black gibbons.The hoolock songs occurred mostly before 12:00 in the morning,but some in the afternoon.Most songs occurred around the time of 09:05 (SD=109.5,n=68,range 07:12-16:30).The average duration of the songs was 19.7 min (SD=9.34,n=55,range 4-50).The gibbons started to call at different times in different seasons,possibly correlated with the dawn time.Among different sites,the starting time was of no clear difference.Usually gibbons called late when it was rainy,especially in wet season.The song starting time showed significant difference between wet season and dry season.The song duration showed significant difference between different sites at the same season.The timing of hoolock gibbons showed time (season)-specific characteristics,which might correlate with the dawning time or more exactly with the light tense.The habitat quality,group density and human disturbance wowld influence the singing frequency of days and times but with no determined relationships.The comparison between hoolock and black gibbons showed that hoolock song had a longer duration and a wider range of the time distribution,with significant difference.
1999, 20(4): 278-283.
The sound spectrograph of mandarin vole in different age groups and behavioural states were analysed in order to study the regular pattern of the songs development and the relationship between the characters of calling songs and relative behaviours.Sonograms of juveniles were simple and the MPF (main peak frequency) was about 1800 Hz.There was one energy range located in medium frequency range (1300-2500 Hz).The sonograms of sub-adults were more complicated than those of juveniles and there were two energy ranges which both were located in medium frequency range (750-1302 Hz,1431-1570 Hz),MPF=945 Hz.The frequency spectrums of calling songs of adults were the most complicated and had several energy peaks.Although there was great difference in different conditions,two energy ranges were generally located in adults.One was located in medium frequency range (550-4127 Hz) and the other was located in high frequency range (5500- 8125 Hz).The calls of different individuals in different behavioural states had different biological meanings.
The population data of rodents in Narenbaolige Sumu,Abaga Banner,Inner Mongolia during 1979-1997 showed annual cyclical fluctuations of Microtus brandti population to a certain degree by cycling index (S).There were 10 rodent species,with M.brandti (88.45%) and Ochotona daurica (5.37%) in 1989-1997.There were positive correlation relationships among the total densities (the sum of population densities of rodents in unit area),density of M.brandti and O.daurica (P=0.0001).The regression model was:the total densities=0.8806+1.0048 (density of M.brandti)+0.8779 (density of O.dauricus) (P=0.0001).The diversity and evenness of rodents were influenced significantly by the density of M.brandti.Absolute dominant species was M.brandti in rodent community during 1970-1997.
Xishuangbanna is one of three areas where tropical rain forest can be found in China.Ant communities of montane rain forest in nature reserve area and 3 fragments in Xishuangbanna were compared through a sampling investigating method.Our aim was to reveal the distance influence upon the ant communities.Seventy-four ant species belonging to 6 subfamilies and 35 genera were collected in 4 types of sample plot.Fragments with different distance from nature reserve area had their own endemic species separately (10-11 species),but the number was all less than that of nature reserve area (15 species).With the distance from nature reserve area increasing,the common species of fragment and nature reserve area decreased (from 5,3,to 2 species),but percentage of the most important dominant species Pseudolasius silvestrii Wheeler increased (from 26.36% to 69.12%).The number of species in nature reserve area (15 species) was distinctly larger than in fragments (26-29 species).Individual density in nature reserve area (547.8/m) was higher than in fragments,and the density of fragments increased (from 172.4/m,209.4/m,to 364.6/m) with the distance from nature reserve area increasing.Among the 4 sample plot types,fragment 1,which was closest to nature reserve area,rather than nature reserve area,had the maximum of species diversity index and evenness index (2.767 and 0.830 respectively).With the distance from nature reserve area increasing,species diversity indices and evenness indices of the 3 fragments decreased,but predominant indices increased.Similarity coefficient between nature reserve area and 3 fragments decreased (from 0.29,0.24,to 0.15) with distance from nature reserve area increasing.The results show that distance has great influence upon ant communities in fragments of montane rain forest,and fragmentation is harmful for biodiversity protection.
1999, 20(4): 294-300.
In this paper,morphologic characteristics among 27 populations of original green toads Bufo viridis from west China were compared.In meantime,their characters were contrasted with the three toads of the Turkmen and Kashmir from adjacents areas,Bufo danatensis,Bufo latastii and Bufo stomaticus (Kashmir).The results show that they may be divided into 4 types which differ from each other in morphologic characters (Table 1).We agree to the suggestion made by Borkin et al.(1988) that the tetraloid toads from Xinjiang area are temporarily placed in Bufo danatensis.Now this species includes 3 subspecies in Xinjiang area:Bufo d.danatensis Pisanetz,1978;Bufo d.pewzowi Bedriaga,1898;Bufo d.taxkorensis subsp.nov..The toad from Zamda,west Xizang (Tibet) is considered to be a distinct species,Bufo zamdaensis sp.nov.
1999, 20(4): 301-305.
Schistura heterognathos Chen,sp.nov.is described based on specimens from the Nanla River,a tributary of the Lancangjiang River (upper Mekong River),in Yunnan Province of China.It is especially characterized by its abnormal jaws.The jaws are broad,thick and strong.The upper jaw has no dentoid process and there is a very small or no notch in the lower jaw.The dissociative margins of jaws are straight.The mouth is broad and transversal,its width approximately equals to snout length and is greater than the interorbital width.
1999, 20(4): 306-315.
Except for three species of snub-nosed monkeys and one douc,which was noted according to a skin on Hainan Island in 19th Century,five species of leaf monkeys have been recorded in China.They are Semnopithecus entellus,Trachypithecus pileatus,Trachypithecus geei (?),Trachypithecus phayrei and Trachypithecus francoisi.However,some disputes still exist concerning taxonomy on the genus and species level.In genus,Pithecus,Semnopithecus,Presbytis and Trachypithecus all were used as the genus name for leaf monkeys covering a wide range from mainland of Asia to islands of Southest Asia.Since middle of 1980s,most of West scientists separated the group into three genera:Semnopithecus for hanuman langur,Trachypithecus for species on mainland of Asia and Presbytis for the species on Sunda Islands,Southeast Asia.While many scientists in China still use Presbytis as the genus name for all Chinese leaf monkeys so far.Though Corbet et al.(1992) combined Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus because there were hybrid offspring between the two genera.In primates,nevertheless,hybrid between genera also happened in some other groups in captive.Therefore,we adopted the view of most scientists that Chinese leaf monkeys are separated into two genera:Semnopi thecus and Trachypithecus.In species,we think that Pithecus obscurus barbei described by Allen (1938)in southwestern Yunnan is a subspecies of Trachypithecus phayrei,and Presbytis leucocephalus named by T an (1957)is a subspecies of Trachypithcus francoisi.Chinese leaf monkeys demonstrate a vicarious distribution pattern from west to east,Semnopithecus entellus in Himalayas,Trachypithecus geei in Menyu and Luoyu,South Tibet,T.pileatus in Mt.Gaoligong,northwestern Yunnan,T.phayrei in West and South of Yunnan,and T.francoisi in Guangxi,Guizhou and Chongqing.All five species have been listed as the First Category in State Key Protected Wildlife List of China and in Appendix Ⅰ of CITES (except T.francoisi and T.phayrei as in Appendix Ⅱ of CITES).According to recent surveys,the population of leaf monkeys in China is:about 1000 indivi duals of S.entellus,500-600 individuals of T.pileatus,5000-6000 individuals of T.phayrei,3200-3500 individuals of T.f.francoisi,and 1200-1400 individuals of T.f.leucocephalus.Owing to no data for T.geei,its current population is unclear.Since 1980s,most of distribution areas of leaf monkeys in China have been set up as 32 natural reserves,and hunting for the monkeys has been inhibited,so that the habitats have been improved.The population tends to be stable and T.francoisi leucocephalus also shows an increase in recent years.