2004 Vol. 25, No. 6
2004, 25(6): 469-476.
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Feeding behaviors of Tibetan gazelles (Procapra picticaudata) have been studied with fixing observation and scan sampling in Shiqu County of Sichuan Province from August to October 2003.40 sampling plots (20 m×20 m) were set at least every 100 m apart in order to investigate feeding habitat and diet.Through Kolmogorov-Smirnov test,when the data were of normally distributed parametric tests were used,otherwise nonparametric tests were done.A total of 49 groups (333 individuals) were observed,the largest group observed was 34 individuals,and average size of groups was 6.8 individuals (n=49).Male was inclined to be small group (besides single-individual groups,groups of 2-3 individuals:33.33%,n=9),2 individuals were the most common size of mother-offspring groups (53%,n=15),but very little was observed on the female groups of lesser than 4 individuals.Two feeding peaks of Tibetan gazelle characterized diurnal feeding budgets (one at 8:00-9:00 and another at 17:00-18:00,each of feeding percentages>54%).Higher trophic plants (Kobrecia,Leontopodium and Oxytropis etc.) were the most common diets of Tibetan gazelles,which were over 80% of total recipe.The clustering and principal component analysis of 13 habitat factors indicated that the cumulative contribution of previous four principal components reached 71%,can represent the mainly feeding habitat characteristic of Tibetan gazelles,and the main factors influencing feeding habitat selection of Tibetan gazelles were divided into three types:the vegetation nutrition (with moderate high meadow vegetation),the harassing grade (with better conceal condition and lesser harassment of human beings),and the water resource (with closer to water resource and better lee nature).
2004, 25(6): 477-483.
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In late April of 2002 and 2003,we collected 423 Reevese s butterfly lizards (Leiolepis reevesii) from a population in Ledong,Hainan,to study sexual dimorphism and reproductive output.The minimal reproductive female in our sample was 89.0 mm snout-vent length (SVL).Individuals larger than this size were arbitrarily judged as adults.The lizard is sexually dimorphic,with males being larger in both body size and head size.The rate (slope) at which head size (both head length and head width) increased with increasing SVL was greater in male adults than in female adults,whereas it did not differ between male and female juveniles.A two-way ANOVA,with sex and age (adult and juvenile) as the factors,on the residuals of the regressions of head length and head width on SVL showed that heads were larger in males than in females,and that juveniles had larger heads relative to SVL than did adults.Females maintained in the laboratory laid eggs between late May and mid-July,and they had the potential to lay multiple clutches per year.The coefficient of variation was 0.18 for clutch size and 0.13 for egg mass,indicating that clutch size was more variable than egg mass.The clutch size,clutch mass and egg mass were all independent of maternal size (SVL).The egg mass was not negatively correlated with relative fecundity,suggesting that the trade-off between size and number of eggs was absent in the lizard.The relative clutch mass was negatively correlated with maternal size,indicating that the smaller reproductive female had the relatively greater reproductive output.Given that a female s reproduction retards her growth,the relatively greater reproductive output in smaller females at least partly explains why females have the smaller adult size than do males.
2004, 25(6): 484-490.
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Testicular microstructure was investigated in 38 stream salamanders (Batrachuperus tibetanus) collected at the north slope of Qinling Mountain from Jan.to Dec.of 2001 and 2003.The results showed that spermatogenesis in this species followed an annual cycle,was the discontinuous type.Proliferation of spermatogonia was divided into two stages,one was from Sep.to Nov.,and the other was from Apr.to May next year.Meiosis occurs in late Jun.-Jul.,and the spermiogenesis began late Jul.and spermatozoa were present in Aug.Each lobule was distinguished from the immature region and mature region.The immature region served as a reservoir of spermatogonia,which can mitose into a proliferative region.The proliferative region transformed into the mature region,which served as the spermiogenesis site and store sperm.After spermiation,the mature region changed into the evacuated region,which was substituted by the proliferative region progressively.Spermatogenic progress was synchronized in all testicular lobules,and no maturational wave was discernible in the testis.
2004, 25(6): 491-496.
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The system composed of homology neural cluster and different neuron is regarded as the object in the paper.On the basis of biologic characteristic,a order parameter is founded and Fuke-Plank equation is used to describe the system order parameter,and then the system order parameter is used to extend the optimized response of homology neuron cluster,namely for resemble external stimulus,the homology neuron cluster predominates the different neurons by binding mechanism,optimizes the net architecture and realizes the optimized response to resemble external stimulus.The result can enhance the ability of representation to the external information.
2004, 25(6): 497-503.
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Based on the theory of the stable isotope technique，this paper determined the relative contributions of different food sources to animal diet (PCV,Eqs3),dietary contributions ratio (PAiP,Eqs7) and the trophic level of small rodent (TLc,Eqs9) in alpine meadow ecosystem: PCVAi=cos(ΔαPAi)ΖPAi(3) PAiP=PCVAi∑I=1PCVAi×%(7) TLc=1+(αc-αTL1)/Δαcd(9) Where:ΔαPAi represents the angle between predator vector (P) and food vector (Ai);ΖPAi represents the Euclidean distances between predator and food;αc is the consumer vector angle;αTL1 is the first trophic level vector angle;Δαcd is a const ant as the isotopic enrichment factor.Simultaneously,the model of preying and trophic relationship between two species was estimated in alpine meadow ecosystem:while cos(Δα)/PCVmin≤ΖS1S2≤cos(Δα)/PCVmax,preying relationship presents in two species and one species eat the other;while ΖS1S2
cos(Δα)/PCVmax,preying relationship absents,the former Eqs.shows two species in the same trophic level and the latter in more than one trophic level.In addition,the result,which the trophic level of animal is estimated by using Eqs9 in alpine meadow ecosystem,consistents with Zhang et al (1999).
2004, 25(6): 504-509.
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A loach Triplophysa (Triplophysa) nujiangensa sp.nov.(Holotype:KIZ 20007496,61.1 mm SL) has been recognized on basis of two series of collections from main stem of Nu Jiang (Salween) in Nujiang Prefecture,July 2000 and Baoshan City,Yunnan,China,July 2004.Triplophysa (T.) nujiangensa is closely related to T.(T.) tanggulaensis (Zhu),T.(T.) stoliczkae (Steindachner),T.(T.) crassilabris Ding and T.(T.) stenura (Herzenstein).It can be distinguished from T.(T.) stenura,which also occurs in upper Nu Jiang,by following characters:caudalpeduncle depth not decrease prominently vs decrease prominently;caudal-peduncle width is smaller than its depth vs larger than;caudal-peduncle length 1.6-2.8 times its depth vs 4.7-9.5 times;papillae-like process on edge of upper lip absent vs present and form a prefringe;papillae on lower lip absent vs present.It can be distinguished from T.(T.) crassilabris by following characters:branched dorsal fin ray 8 vs 7;branched pectoral fin ray 10-11 vs 8-9;gill rakers 10-19 vs 8-9;intestine loops 3 vs 4-5;lower lip interrupted vs continuous;interorbital space convex vs flat;interorbital width 0.6-0.8 times caudal-peduncle length vs almost equal to;predorsal length 71.1%-77.2% standard length vs about 50%;pelvic fin not reach anus vs reach or surpass;caudal fin emarginate vs truncate.Its spade-like lower jaw with sharp and straight edge is closer to T.(T.) stoliczkae,while its snout bending down anterior to nostril is closer to T.(T.) tanggulaensis;its gill rakers 10-19,just between T.(T.) stoliczkae and T.(T.) tanggulaensis.It can be distinguished from both T.(T.) stoliczkae and T.(T.) tanggulaensis by the following characters:predorsal length 71.1%-77.2% standard length vs 47%-55% and 52%-57%;pelvic fin not reach anus vs reach.It can be further distinguished from T.(T.) tanggulaensis by its snout round vs pointed,cheek normal vs inflated,standard length 4.6-5.5 times head length vs 4.1-4.5,pectoral fin length 47.5%-63.5% distance between pectoral and pelvic fin origins vs about 75%.It has relative smaller body size than T.(T.) stoliczkae,standard length 45.6-73.1 mm vs 35.5-111 mm;and it can be further distinguished from T.(T.) stoliczkae by its body short vs slender,head more cylindral vs more triangular,snout bends down anterior to nostril vs head back straight,papillae-like process on edge of upper lip absent vs present and form a prefringe,papillae on lower lip absent vs present,paired fins rounded and short vs sharp and elongate.A key to Chinese Triplophysa with a spade-like lower jaw is listed in the text.
Phylogenetic Relationships among 12 Species of Tetrigidae (Orthoptera:Tetrigoidea) Based on Partial Sequences of 12S and 16S Ribosomal RNA
2004, 25(6): 510-514.
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Mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA genes sequences were sequenced using dye-labeled terminator on an ABI 377 automated sequencer in 11 individuals and 1 species sequences were gained from GenBank,representing 6 genera of family Tetrigidae.The collated sequences were aligned using Clustal X version 1.81 and then,the sequence variability and heredity distances based on Kimura 2parameter model were calculated using Mega 2.1.In obtained sequences (736 bp),the average A+T content is 73.9%,ranging from 71.2% to 77.5%;the overall G+C content is 26.1%,ranging from 22.5% to 28.8%.Based on alignment of the combined sequences,185 parsimony-informative sites were revealed in 755 available base pairs.Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using NJ,MP and ML methods with Cylindraustralia kochii as outgroup.The results indicated that the monophyletic nature of Tetrix is questioned and suggest that T.tubercarina may be given tribal rank.Our results also show that Coptltettix huanjiangensis and C.gongshanensis are the same species,I.e.Coptltettix gongshanensis Zheng,and C.huanjiangensis is the synonyms of C.gongshanensis.
2004, 25(6): 515-521.
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Sequences of the Cyt b gene segments on mitochondrial DNA of 9 species of Apolygus China and Lygus Hahn (Heteroptera:Miridae:Mirinae:Mirini) were extracted by means of protease K digesting and sequenced to both directions.Nucleotide composition,nucleotide variation ratio between species as well as variation ratio of 144 amino acid coded by 11 segments of 433 bp of the 9 species from the two genera were calculated using phylogenetic analyzing software package Mega.Nucleotide variation ratio:less than 0.02 within Apolygus and less than 0.08 within Lygus (with the exception of a few species) but more than 0.10 between species of the two groups with the average variation of 0.15.Variation ratio of the amino acid:no difference among the species within Apolygus and Lygus themselves with only an exception of a difference of 13 amino acid between L.gemellatus and other species within Lygus,but there is stably a variation of 8 to 11 amino acids,I.e.a 5.6% to 7.6% variation between any species examined of Apolygus and that of Lygus.It is proved that there has been existed distinct difference between these two groups at molecular level and they separated very well,which strongly supports the taxonomic opinion that Apolygus is promoted to a generic taxon.
Cluster Analysis of the Song Complexity and the Volumes of Song Control Nuclei among Ten Oscine Species
2004, 25(6): 522-526.
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The objects adopted in the present study were adult male birds from 10 oscine species obtained either from wild field or from breeding in our laboratory.When birds were acquainted with their surrounding livings,songs were recorded,and analyzed by use of VS-99 sound analyzing software.Song complexity was valued through the following seven index:total phrase (TP),syllables in all the phrases (SAP),the syllable types in all the phrases (STAP),syllables in the longest phrase (SLP),the syllable types in the longest phrase (STLP),the average number of syllable per phrase (ANSPP) and the average number of syllable types per phrase (ANSTPP).After the recordings finished,we measured the volumes of three song control nuclei:HVC (high vocal control center),RA (robust nucleaus of the archistriatum) and Area X.Then,the seven index assessing the song complexity and the volumes of HVC,RA and Area X were clustered by cluster analysis software (SPSS 10.0,significant level=0.05).The results revealed that song complexity largely varied not only among different families but also among species in the same family.Three studied nuclei were the largest in the Mongolian lark (Melanocorypha mongolica),then in the Eurasian siskin (Serinus canaria) and yellow-throated bunting (Emberiza elegans).The results of cluster analysis based on the song complexity and the size of song nucleus differed from each other,and both of them were different from those of traditional classification.However,according to the cluster analysis of RA and Area X volumes,the Mongolian lark could be distinguished from the others,which was consistent with the classification based on the traditional or DNA data classification.
cDNA Cloning,mRNA Transcription of Sox9 Gene at Early Developmental Stages in Amur Sturgeons (Acipenser schrenckii)
2004, 25(6): 527-533.
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The Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) Sox9 partial cDNA (1 140 bp) was cloned from cDNA of this species gonad by RACE-PCR,and the temporal and spatial expression patterns were analyzed by RT-PCR.RT-PCR showed that Sox9 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed at all the stages (1[+]-3[+]) checked of 8 tissues (heart,kidney,liver,eye,spleen,brain,testis and ovary).Sox9 expression levels were extremely low in the fry at 1 day after hatching,while mRNA expression level rose after 15 days.Expression pattern of gonad has not any difference between testis and ovary,which suggests that the function of Sox9 in the cartilage is conserved among vertebrates,while that in the gonad is quite different.
Comparison between the Medullary Indexes of Hairs from Apodemus orestes and A.draco,with Discussion about the Taxonomic Status of A.orestes
2004, 25(6): 534-537.
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The taxonomic status of longtailed field mouse (Apodemus orestes) is still uncertain up to now.Some scholars regarded it as a subspecies or a synonym of dragon field mouse (A.draco),while other scholars considered it a valid species.In the study,five specimens of adult long-tailed field mouse,dragon field mouse and Chevriers field mouse (A.chevrieri) (as a contrast) were chosen respectively.After treated,with the eyepiece micrometer in the inverted microscope,we made measurements of the widths of hairs and medullas and then calculated the medullary indexes of straight guard hairs from around the mouth,head,back,abdomen and forelimb of each species.The results indicate that,viewing at each of the five parts and the mixture of the five parts,there are no significant differences between A.orestes and A.draco,Significant differences can be found between A.orestes & A.chevrieri and A.draco & A.chevrieri though.The standpoint that A.orestes was listed as a valid species is not supported by this study.
2004, 25(6): 538-542.
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The retinae of 4 old cats (12 years,3-3.5 kg) and 4 young cats (1-3 years,2-2.5 kg) were selected.After treated in 4% paraformaldehyde,we applied HematoxylinEosin and Nissl staining to exhibit the structure of the retinae and ganglion cells respectively,and also we used immunohistochemical ABC method to display the distribution of GFAP-immunoreactive (GFAP-IR) cells that were specifically classified as the astrocytes.By microscope we observed the thickness of retinae,counted the numbers of ganglion cells and GFAP-IR cells.Compared with young cats,the retinae in old cats presented a significant decrease in the thickness of total retina,outer nuclear layer,outer plexiform layer,inner nuclear layer,inner plexiform layer as well as an evidently lower density of ganglion cells.Also old cats showed clearly larger number and stronger staining of GFAP-IR cells than did in young cats,and at the same time the GFAP-IR cell bodies and dendrites swelled obviously in old cats.We presume that neurons lose in old cats,which hints that the loss of retinal cells might be of an important factor mediating visual functional declines during senescence.The functional increase of astrocytes may suspend more aging.
2004, 25(6): 543-550.
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In the present study,the effects of postnatal development on the number and distribution of skeletal muscle fibers of different types in hind leg of rat and rabbit were studied.The soleus muscles of rats aged 2 days,2,4,6,8,and 10 weeks (body weight 10,32,95,190,280,and 320 g),and rabbits aged 2 days,2,4,8,12,16,20,and 24 weeks (body weight 100,220,400,750,1 200,1 600,2 100,and 2 500 g) were stained with succinic dehydrogenase.With an image analysis system,the X-Y coordinates of fibers were used to analyze the growth-related changes.The results of present study showed that three types of fibers were found in the soleus muscles of rat and rabbit,I.e.,type Ⅰ (slow oxidative),ⅡX (fast oxidative),and ⅡA (fast oxidative glycolytic).The type Ⅰ fibers were present throughout the muscle that had a uniform distribution and tended to increase in number with aging.Type ⅡX fibers were scattered throughout the muscle and decreased markedly in number with aging.Type ⅡA fibers were located at the central and deep regions,and showed a little or no change in number and distribution with aging.While be of age,type ⅡA and ⅡX fibers became restricted to the superficial region.No type ⅡB fibers were detected.Type ⅡA fibers had the largest diameter,type Ⅰ intermediate and type ⅡX the smallest.Mean cross-sectional area of each type fibers of rabbits was larger than that of rats.The present results indicate that the number and distribution of muscle fibers of different types in hind limb of rat and rabbit change with the process of postnatal growth.
Rediscovering the Wild Population of White Cloud Mountain Minnows (Tanichthys albonubes Lin) on Guangdong Province
2004, 25(6): 551-555.
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White cloud mountain minnow (Tanichthys albonubes Lin) is an endemic species.It has been listed a second-class state protected animal of China.The species was already on the verge of extinction when LIN Shu-yan first discovered it in 1932 at the Baiyunshan Mountain.Its distribution area is very narrow and only distributed in the mountain brooks of the Baiyunshan Mountain,Huadu City,Longgang in Shenzhen,Hong Kong and the vicinity of Guangzhou in Guangdong Province.It was deeply convinced to extinct in nature because there was not a report of the fish in the wild state since 1980.In September 2003,its population in wild state was discovered in a mountain puddle where spring well up and slow-move on the vicinity of Guangzhou.It likes to stay in clear shallow water with thick growth of weeds.Some basic studies have been done to wild T.albonubes on the morphologic characteristic,feed habits,habitat,growth and reproduction,and factors of endangerment and protect.
2004, 25(6): 556-559.
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A species of bats Myotis hasseltii (female) collected in Bailong Dong,Mile County,Yunnan Province,China,in September,2003,and this is the first record from China.Diagnosis of this specimen:the pelage is short and velvety,with the upperparts gray to pale brown and the underparts somewhat lighter;the individual hairs are dark at their bases,with pale silver tips.The ears are dark brown and large,but rather short;the tragus is bluntly pointed,with a triangular lobe at its base.The face and muzzle are covered with sparse hairs,with the exposed skin pink in color.The interfemoral membrane is large,acutely angular behind;the wings attach at the ankle.The second premolar is displaced inwards so that the first and third premolars are nearly in contact.This report brings the known bat fauna of China to 122 species,the genus of Myotis of China to 25.
2004, 25(6): 560-563.
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158 Yunnan local recipient ewes were synchronized,and 102 imported Dorper sheep embryos were thawed and transferred.The rates of synchronization and embryo transfer were 82.91% and 77.86%,respectively.Conception rate in the first three estrus cycles and birth rate was 74.5% and 66.7%,respectively.The results suggeste that the effect factors of frozen embryo transfer in Dorper sheep include stage and class of embryo and corpus luteum.Besides,personnel techniques of transferring affect conception and birth rate directly.Besides,protocol of transfer,recipient breeding and management,timing and reason of embryo transfer are important to Doper embryo transfer.