1994 Vol. 15, No. 1
This article gives a brief introduction to several important issues in molecular systematics,that is,(1) advantages and limitations of molecular systematics;(2) relationship between molecular tree and species tree;(3) relationship between molecular clock and molecular systematics;(4) comparison of nucleotide sequence data and amino acid sequence data;(5) comparison of MP,NJ and ML method;(6) reliability of molecular tree.Two widely used softwares,PHYLIP and CLUSTAL V are briefly described.
A large lizard was bought from a Vietnamese in free market in Hekou,Yunnan,bordering Vietnam,on November 15,1992.It is a new species of Varanus and described as follows.In this paper,we also studied the relationships among nine species of Varanus according to 15 characters in southern and southeastern Asia,and presented the geographical distribution of nine species.
1994, 15(1): 16-22.
This paper gives the descriptions of 3 new species and notes on 4 new chinese records of Miridae (Compsidolon pumilus (Jak.),C.kerzhneri Kulik and Psallopsis kirgisicus (Becker),P.halostachydis (Putshkov),collected from Inner Mongolia.All the specimens are deposited in the Biological Department of Inner Mongolia Teachers University.
The ultrastructures of eggshells and shell membranes of eight species of Galliformes,which are Bonasa sewerzowi,Crossoptilon auritum,Ithaginis cruentus,Alectoris magna,Alectoris chukar,Perdix hodgsoniae,Tetraogallus himalayensis and Gallus dometicus,were observad by scanning electron micrograph.Among them,eggshell of P.hodgsoniae consists of cone layer and palisade layer,and absents cuticle and fissures on its surface.The outer orifices of pore canals are open.The eggshells of the others are comprised cone layer,palisade and cuticle.Their surfaces have fissures and outer orifices of pore canals are covered by membrane.The vesicles in the palisade are a structure adapted to fly.Species,which flying ability is stronger and flying speed is faster,lay eggs that density of the vesicles in eggshell is greater.
In this paper,the eggs and egg pods of five species of Chinese Acridoidea are described and figured for the first time.These five species,Spathosternum prasiniferum prasiniferum (Walk.),Gesonula punctifrons Stal,Sinopodisma houshana Huang,Traulia aurora Will.,Choroedocus violaceipes Miller belong to the Catantopidae.
The polymorphism on skin morphology in amphibians may be divided into two types.One type is of the color morphs and the other type of the phenotypic texture of the skin.In the present paper the polymorphism of latter type is discussed.The skin texture of the variant individuals differs sharply from that of normal individuals by having skin very rough,crowed with warts,which is not correlated with the sex of the individuals.The polymorphic variants of the same texture are found at present in six species of amphibians in Hengduan mountains.Among them there are 2 species of urodeles (Batrachuperus pinchonii,and B.tibetanus) and 4 species of anurans [Scutiger (Scutiger) boulengeri,S.(Aelurophryne) brevipes,S.(A.) mammatus and S.(A.) muliensis].Based on 58 localities and number of polymorphic variants in 4307 individuals of abovesix species,it shows that the distribution ranges of appearing polymorphic variants are very narrow and frequencies very low.That account only for 0.39%-6.67% of total individuals of each species in every area,but 6.67%-51.90% in the same nich.The cause of this structural polymorphism may probably be closely related to habitat.Particularly,the variants of 4 species with the same special character exhibit simultaneously in the same mountain stream of Pengbuxi,Kangding,Sichuan.And the proportions of the polymorphic variants in these populations of the area are correlated with inhabitable time in the water environment.The frequencies of the variants in aquatic typic species are more than that of terrestrial species.Hence the fact that the very similar polymorphic variants of the skin crowded with warts exhibits in several species closely related or divergent of sympatry or allopatry show that the polymorphism may probably have direct relation to the water bodys of the streams of the areas.
From March,1987 to July,1990,the behaviours of captive Lady Amhersts Pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) were observed twice a month during the non-breeding season,and three times a month during the breeding season.Each observation began at dawn before the pheasants went down from the trees and ended at dusk after they went up to the trees to rest.The average period of each observation was 15 hours.Each behaviour and its duration,climate,temperature,humid and illumination were recorded.This paper presents the main results of feeding activity.The daily feeding frequency of males was 16.14±6.33,while that of females was 17.83±8.21.The pheasants daily fed more frequently and took more food from September to next April than from May to August.(see figure 1).The daily feeding activity had two main peaks,one was after they went down from the trees in the morning,and the other was before they went up to the trees at dusk.The former appeared from 6:00 to 7:00 a.m.In summer and 7:00-8:00 a.M.In winter.While the latter appeared from 17:00-18:00 p.M.In both summer and winter.In winter a third peak was observed in midday (12:00-13:00)(see figure 2) and the daily feeding frequency in the afternoom was higher than that in the morning,while the reverse was true during summer (see table 1).During the breeding season the daily feeding frequency of males was 21.73±2.17,and the total time it took was 80.19±16.93 minutes,which accounted for the 8.91% of the total observing time;while the daily feeding frequency of females was 22.13±1.38,and the total feeding time it took was 125.77±12.64 minutes,which accounted for the 13.97% of the total observing time.The daily feeding frequency of males and females did not have significant variation (P>0.05),while the daily feeding time of males was significantly different from that of females (P<0.05).The stepwise regression showed that the feeding activity of males was affected by courtship,preening and walking,while that of females was affected by walking,preening and resting.The regression equations are as follows:Males Y=200.3-0.25X2-1.92X4-0.64X6;Females Y=478.33-0.57X1-0.68X2-0.64X4;Y stood for daily feeding time,X1,X2,X4 and X6 respectively stood for resting,walking,preening,and courtship time.
In the present paper,immunohistochemical and immunoelectronic microscopic methods was used to research the distribution of the β-END neuronal perikarya and fibers in the brains of 14 Tupaia belangeri,as well as its the localization of the organellae,the result showed that immunoreactive neuronal perikarya of the β-END in the diagonal band of Broca were first reported in this paper.The electronic microscopic observation showed that the positive products of immunoreactivity to β-END antiserum are located at the small pellets within the large granular vesicles and scattered on the rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum.Immunoreactive neurons perikarya to β-END antiserum in the hypothalamus arcuate nucleus and its surrounding areas were visualized by light microscopy.Immunoreactive positive fibers and beaded varicosities to β-END antiserum were found in the periventricle areas,the paraventricle nucleus,the vicinity of the ependymal layer of the third ventricle and ependymal surface,mediobasal hypothalamus and its lateral areas,and in the internal and external layer of the median eminence.The release ways and its regulative factors of the β-END are discussed in the paper.
1994, 15(1): 59-64.
In order to make clear the law of annual cycle of the function of thyroid in cobra,the writer of this article chose 84 mature healthy male Naja naja Atra bought from Suichang,Zhejiang Province,divided them into 12 groups and drew their blood during the period of 9:00-11:00 a.M.On around the 20th day of every month to be studying materials.When the blood drawn had been made into plasma,it was stored in a low-temperature refrigerator -35 ℃.As the specimens of every month were all at hand,the T,T,TsH concentration in plasma during the whole year were tested by way of radioimmunoassay.The instrument used was an automatic γ-immune counter of model FJ-2008G,made in the Statewned 262 Factory.The T,T,reagent box was made in Shanghai Living Thing By-product Works under Public Health Ministry.The TsH reagent box was made in Shanghai Chemical Reagent Institute.Every determination was made according to the directions contained in the determination boxes.The relationship between cobras activity grades and concentration of T,T,was counted by way of χ tendency test.The correlation coefficient between the concentration of T and T was counted by way of linear correlation.The laws of the annual cycle of concentration of T,T and TsH were counted by way of circular distribution statistics.The results came out as follows:(1)The concentration of T,T,TsH in cobra plasma all presented annual cycle of single-peak curve.The peak figure of plasma TsH concentration fell on April 16,The 95% reliability section of peakfigure of whole cobra appeared during the period of March 5 to May 27.The peak of plasma T,T concentration appeared on July 2 and July 8 respectively.The 95% reliability section of peak-figure of whole cobra fell on May 13 to August 21 and June 29 to July 17 respectively.The peak figure of plasma TsH concentration of cobra appeared more than 2 months early than that of the plasma T,T concentration.This indicated that cobra plasma TsH has promoting function to the systhesis and secretion T,T.(2)The internal cause of the increase of T,T secretion is the rhytmic self-adjustion of the cobra.TsH in the cobra is the promoter of the structural change of the thyroid.(3)The plasma T,T concentration in the cobra has very significant relationship with the ambient temperature and the activity grade of cobra.
The cholinesterases (ChE) show high sensitivity and specificity to inhibition by organophosphate compoundes,but cholinesterases from different biological materials have large difference in the sensitivity.The cholinesterases from Pseudosciaena polyactis,P.crocea,Argyrosomus argentatus,Miichthys miiuy and Nibea albiflora of the Sciaemidae of Perciformes are very sensitive to Sarin (Isopropyl- methyl- phosphonfluoridate) and VX[O-ethyl- s-( 2- diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate],the PI values to Sarin and VX are over 7.0.They will become a effective biological reagent for analysis of organophosphate compoundes and insecticides after further experiments,which may have some guiding significance in screening substances with biological activity.
1994, 15(1): 70-76.
six golden monkeys,4 females and 2 males got from northwest of Yunnan,China,were kept in captive for 6 to 12 months.The body weight was 4.4 to 10 kg and approximately in age from 2 to 7 years old.The OT was negative and free of pathogenic bacilli infection for the animals.Blood samples were obtained from upper arm vein before feeding in the morning.Fourteen hematological and biochemical values were determined by Technicon RA-100 automatic blood biochemical analyzer.The results indicated that the urea nitrogen,creatinine,glutamictransaminase,glutamyltranspeptidase,lactate dehydrogenase,alkaline phosphatase in the monkeys were higher than that of human and rhesus monkeys.Their uric acid,triglycerides was lower than that of human and rhesus monkeys.The other values were similar with human or rhesus monkeys.
An improved penile electroejaculation using absorbent cotton and aluminum as electrodes to avoid the small superficial burns or more serious lesions was employed on the Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta),Tibetan macaque (M.thibetana) and Assamese macaque (M.assamensis) and the semen parameters of the animals was compared in the present study.The pattern of stimulation for ejaculation was stepwise and consecutive increasing of voltage.No penile burns or lesions resulted from the electroejaculation procedures.It was effective to use the pattern of stepwise stimulation for the animals at the first on the penile elctroejaculation.Semen parameters of ejaculates obtained by the method from rhesus,Tibetan and Assamese macaques were as follows,semen volume(ml):2.0±0.1,6.3±1.1 and 3.2±0.6;liquefaction(ml):0.7±0.6,2.1±0.4 and 1.7±0.3;concentration (×10／ml):12.6±1.2,45.6±5.6 and 11.5±0.9;coagulum liquefaction rate (%):36.2±0.9,34.0±1.4 and 51.8±1.2,respectively.No correlation was established between the sperm number and the amount of coagulum or the volume of semen (r=0.079;0.016;0.094;and r=0.064;0.020;0.072,respectively) in the three species.These results indicate that:1) the improved penile electroejaculation is suited to rhesus monkey,especially to Tibetan and Assamese macaques with the rough penile surface;2) The semen volume and sperm number of the Tibetan macaque are the largest in the nonhuman primates compared with the previous reports.Its semen may be a good materials for study on spermatology.
An total genomic DNA probe of Giardia lamblia labelled with biotin was prepared.High sensitivity and speciality of the probe were demonstrated in the dot blot test.A hybridisation signal with 10 ng of G.lamblia DNA,and 10 trophozoites or cysts was obtained by using this probe.There was no cross-reation with the closely related DNA from Trichomonas vaginalis,Entoamoeba histolytica and Toxoplasma gondii.Also,no crosshybridisations were found with the liver cells DNA from BABL/c mice as well as the fecal supernatant of G.lamblia infected subject.This probe can be used to detect G.lamblia and identify different isolates of this protozoa.