随着鱼类资源的持续衰退以及保护水产学的兴起, 鱼类人工增殖放流已由传统渔业增殖发展成为特有珍稀鱼类种群恢复的主要技术手段。近年来, 我国淡水鱼类人工增殖放流涉及水系多、规模大且种类丰富, 取得了显著效果并积累了大量基础资料和经验。为深入开展人工增殖放流基础研究, 规范技术并提升生态效益, 该文收集整理了国内、外相关文献资料, 分别从基础理论、塘养种群管理及效果评价等方面阐述人工增殖放流的理论背景, 并结合我国“四大家鱼”、中华鲟、胭脂鱼、滇池金线鲃及其他珍稀濒危鱼类人工增殖放流现状, 讨论了野外监测和效果评价的作用和意义, 提出放流种群遗传局限性、数量和规格权衡以及经济效益与生态效益权衡等问题, 旨在为相关研究和人工放流实践提供系统资料。
Due to declining fishery resources and the growing development of conservation aquaculture, artificial freshwater fish enhancement and releasing have begun to replace traditional means of recovering endemic and rare fish populations. Artificial proliferation can be beneficial both to endemic fish conservation and technical bottleneck breakthroughs. This overview presents a review of the latest research and the underlying principles behind the conservation implementation processes, as well as the research status of artificial enhancement and release of endangered freshwater fish species in China, such as Mylopharyngodon piceus, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, H. nobilis, Acipenser sinensis, Myxocyprinus asiaticus, and Sinocyclocheilus grahami. The overview also presents evolutionarily significant units, sperm and egg quality, and cryopreservation technologies and cell cultures used in artificial enhancement and release, which help standardize genetic management and minimize the genetic differences between hatched and wild populations. Monitoring fish from cultivation to release is essential to evaluating wild population recovery and adjusting recovery plans. Moreover, the remaining problems of artificial releases are discussed in-depth, touching on issues such as the limitations of domestic hatching, the base number of wild populations necessary to the environment, the proper size at which to release juveniles’ into the environment, the geographic confusion of populations, the contradictions in commercial fish selection and fish conservation, and “exotic species” invasion.