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Proximate causes of dispersal for female Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys

Wan-Cai Xia Sheng-Nan Ji Bao-Ping Ren Xin-Ming He Tai Zhong Ali Krzton Yun Tang Da-Yong Li

Wan-Cai Xia, Sheng-Nan Ji, Bao-Ping Ren, Xin-Ming He, Tai Zhong, Ali Krzton, Yun Tang, Da-Yong Li. Proximate causes of dispersal for female Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys. Zoological Research, 2020, 41(1): 78-83. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.008
Citation: Wan-Cai Xia, Sheng-Nan Ji, Bao-Ping Ren, Xin-Ming He, Tai Zhong, Ali Krzton, Yun Tang, Da-Yong Li. Proximate causes of dispersal for female Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys. Zoological Research, 2020, 41(1): 78-83. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.008

雌性滇金丝猴迁移的驱动力

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.008

Proximate causes of dispersal for female Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys

Funds: This work was supported by the National Key Program of Research and Development, Ministry of Science and Technology (2016YFC0503200), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31470461; 31700408), Sichuan Youth Science & Technology Foundation (2015JQ0024), and Applied Basic Research Program of Sichuan Province (2017JY0325)
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  • 摘要:

    个体的迁移在物种的生态学和进化方面具有重要意义,它受到多种因素的影响。了解影响雌性迁移的因素能为灵长类迁移机制和雌性选择提供了重要的见解。本文通过对云南白马雪山自然保护区响古箐区域滇金丝猴9年的种群统计和迁移研究,探讨了雌性滇金丝猴迁移的近因。我们对比了41个雌性迁出案例和43个雌性未迁出案例,以检验影响雌性迁出的关键因素。结果表明,长期生活在某一雄多雌单元(OMU),未生育后代,且亲属少或无的雌性个体更有可能迁出该OMU。同时,我们将50例迁入与255例未迁入的雌性及OMU进行了比较。我们发现,由外群雄性担任主雄,且雌性亲属较多的OMU更有可能被雌性选择。相反,主雄年龄大、任期长,具有潜在生育能力的雌性多的OMU不受迁入雌性的青睐。这些结果表明,繁殖、雄性质量和亲缘合作在雌性滇金丝猴的迁移中起着最大的作用。

    #Authors contributed equally to this work
  • Table  1.   Coding and description of variables used in binary logistic regression modelling

    Group Variable type Variable Variable description
    Emigration Group Reproduction WB Whether female has given birth in OMU (0: no, 1: yes)
    HLB Length of time female did not breed (after age four)
    WOD Whether offspring died within first year (0: no, 1: yes)
    Female quality FLT Female length of tenure
    FA Female age
    Kin NR1 Number of relatives (mother, daughter, and sister)
    Immigration Group Male quality AM New alpha male age
    MT New alpha male length of tenure
    OGM Outgroup male became alpha (0: no, 1: yes)
    Competition NFF Number of potentially fertile females in new OMU
    NI Total number of individuals in new OMU
    Kin NR2 Number of relatives (mother, daughter, and sister)
    For abbreviations, see text.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Binary logistic regression modelling for female emigration and immigration

    Variable type Variable Binary logistic regression model 95.0% CI for Exp(B)
    B SE Wald df Sig Exp(B) Lower Upper
    Emigration Reproduction WB –2.468 0.923 7.150 1 0.007** 0.085 0.014 0.517
    HLB –0.022 0.055 0.156 1 0.693 0.979 0.879 1.090
    WOD 0.051 1.226 0.002 1 0.967 1.053 0.950 11.638
    Female quality FA 0.021 0.012 2.993 1 0.084 1.021 0.997 1.046
    FLT 0.79 0.036 4.971 1 0.026* 1.083 1.010 1.161
    Kin NR1 –1.938 0.537 13.04 1 < 0.001** 0.144 0.050 0.412
    Intercept –0.532 0.881 0.365 1 0.546 0.587
    Immigration Male quality AM –0.036 0.018 3.838 1 0.049* 0.965 1.001 1.079
    MT –0.106 0.037 8.009 1 0.005** 0.900 0.836 0.968
    OGM 2.048 0.710 8.314 1 0.004** 7.7521 1.927 31.190
    Competition NFF –0.991 0.374 7.021 1 0.008** 0.371 0.178 0.773
    NI 0.090 0.181 0.250 1 0.617 1.095 0.768 1.560
    Kin NR2 4.135 1.016 16.573 1 < 0.001** 62.503 8.536 457.662
    Intercept 4.833 2.171 4.954 1 0.026* 125.536
    For abbreviations, see text. B: Logistic coefficient; SE: Standard error of estimate; Wald: Wald chi-square values; df: Degrees of freedom; Sig: Significance; Exp(B): Exponentiated coefficient. CI: Confidence interval. –: Not available. *: P< 0.05; **: P< 0.001.
    下载: 导出CSV
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