确定溪流鱼类群落的时空格局及其形成机制是开展鱼类物种多样性保护和管理的科学基础。该文于2012年5月和10月两次对秋浦河源国家湿地公园境内的24个可涉水河段取样, 共采集鱼类29种, 隶属10科4目。研究了溪流鱼类群落结构及其多样性的时空格局, 并解析了局域栖息地条件与支流空间位置变量对鱼类群落的影响。鱼类多样性的时空变化显著, 鱼类多样性总体上为二级溪流高于一级溪流, 10月份高于5月份。流量量级、底质粗糙度及异质性、水温和水深等对鱼类多样性及群落结构的空间变化影响显著。鱼类群落结构符合嵌套格局, 季节动态不显著, 上游鱼类群落呈现为下游群落的嵌套子集。一、二级溪流间的群落结构尽管存在部分重叠但差异显著, 且这种差异主要源于稀有花鳅(Cobitis rarus)、吻虾虎鱼(Ctenogobius spp.)、宽鳍鱲(Zacco platypus)、尖头鱥(Phoxinus oxycephalus)、高体鰟鲏(Rhodeus ocellatus)和原缨口鳅(Vanmanenia stenosoma)等鱼类相对多度的空间变化, 其中, 除尖头鱥的多度在一级溪流中更高外, 其他5种鱼类均在在二级溪流更高。
Identifying and clarifying how stream fish assemblage patterns vary spatially and temporally are basic measures for the conservation and management of fish species. Based on data collected from 24 wadeable reaches within the Qiupu Headwaters National Wetland Park between May and October 2012, we examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the assemblage structures and diversities, collecting a total of 29 fish species belonging to four orders and ten families. The results of our survey showed influences of local habitat and tributary spatial position variables on fish assemblages. Fish diversity showed significant variations across stream-orders and seasons, which were higher in the second-order streams than in first-order streams and higher in October than in May. Habitat factors such as substrate coarseness and heterogeneity, water temperature and water depth, as well as tributary position factor-link, showed significant effects on fish diversity. Fish assemblages fitted the nested pattern that upstream assemblages presented as a nested subset of downstream assemblages. Fish assemblage structures did not vary significantly across seasons but did across stream-orders; fish assemblages between first- and second-order streams showed significant differences despite some overlap. These spatial differences mainly resulted from spatial variations of the relative abundance of Cobitis rarus, Ctenogobius sp., Zacco platypus, Phoxinus oxycephalus, Rhodeus ocellatus and Vanmanenia stenosoma, among which P. oxycephalus had higher abundance in first-order than in second-order streams but the other five species were more abundant in second-order streams. Fish assemblage structures were significantly related to substrate heterogeneity, water depth, stream order, link and C-link.