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2002年  第23卷  第6期

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研究论文
Enhancer of growth of microcapsule-type recombinant common carp (Cyprinus carpio) growth hormone (rcGH) was investigated with the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Chinese grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone and enzyme-linked immunosorbent receptor assay (ELISA-RA) for fish.The pH threshold values of dissolution at ratesin Ⅰ and Ⅱ were 6.0 and 6.6,respectively.At pHs above threshold value,the releasing rate of rcGH from microcapsule Ⅰand Ⅱ increased gradually as pH values increased and time went on.Following feeding of microcapsule Ⅰcontaining rcGH or rcGH (1 mg rcGH/g food pellets) to Clarias batrachus,serum rcGH levels of the former started to elevate after 15 h,reaching a maximum after 24 h,and undetected at the 48 h after administration,whereas rcGH in serum of the latter was undetected from 6 to 60 h.It is quite clear that microcapsuleⅠplays a role in protecting rcGH againt degrading by the proteinase in the digestive tract to some extent and microcapsuleⅠand Ⅱ possess the characteristics and function of antacid capsule.
The present study investigated the changes of volumes of four vocal control nuclei:robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA),lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum(LMAN),Area X and high vocal center (HVC) during development in the songbird,Striated Mannikin (Lonchura striata swinhoei).By using of neural tract-tracing methods,the process of neural connectivity within the four nuclei was studied to further understand the neural mechanism of development and sexual differentiation of vocal control nuclei in songbirds.The results were as follows:1)Both male and female RA volumes most significantly changed around 20 or 30 days,and the sexual differences in volumes occurred around 20 or 30 days.Both male and female RA received efferent fibers from LMAN and HVC around 15 or 25 days respectively.2)Both male and female LMAN volumes experienced first increase and subsequent decrease.However,the peaks of changes of female LMAN volumes were 10-day delay compared to those of males.The LMAN volumes both in males and in females changed most rapidly in two periods:from 20 to 25 days age and from 30 to 40 days during the whole development.The neural connections between LMAN and RA established around 15 days age in both males and females.However,female LMAN received fewer connections than male LMAN.3)Area X volume changed most rapidly from 20 to 25 days.Area X received HVC efferent fibers around 15 days.Female Area X received fewer connections than male Area X.4)Both male and female HVC volumes changed significantly around 20 or 30 days.The establishment of neural connection between HVC and Area X or between HVC and RA was around 15 days or 25 days respectively.The present study suggested that the time when the volume of vocal control nuclei changed significantly was approximately corresponded to the time of establishment of neural connection(s) among the vocal control nuclei.Thus the neural development of vocal control nuclei or their sexual differences might be correlated to the establishment of their own neural connections.
A novel mammal-specific neuron toxin,Huwentoxin-Ⅵ(HWTX-Ⅵ),was purified from the venom of the spider Selenocosmia huwena,by ion exchange chromatography and reversed phase HPLC.The molecular weight of the toxin is 4.440 18 kDa determined by the analysis of MALDI-TOF mass spectrum and the sequence is:H[2]N-CIGEG VPCDE NDPRC CSGLV VLKKT LHGIW IKSSY CYKCK-COOH determined by the amino sequence analysis,in which six Cys residues form three pairs of disulfide bridge.Rat brain injection experiments show that Huwentoxin-Ⅵ has obvious paralysis effect on neuron system and the paralysis effect has reversibility.
The different bird species lay their eggs at different times of the day and at different intervals.The patterns of egg-laying have not been well studied,although that may influence the reproductive success.We determined the egg-laying time and laying intervals in Blood Pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus) by using the temperature data loggers,which were connected with the artificial eggs fixed in the natural nests,at Lianhuashan Nature Reserve,China.The egg-laying hour of the day was 15:16±22 min (range:13:30-18:51) and peaked around 14:00-16:00.The female spent (2.2±0.26) h on the nest as each egg was laid.The egg-laying intervals was (46.4±3.08) h and the most of that were between 45.8-48.9 h.The pattern selecting to lay at the particular time of the day might be related to avoid nocturnal periods of high predator activity.The more than one days intervals of blood pheasant might be the adaptation to the severe environment of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
The brood habitat of Reeves Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) was investigated in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve in Henan Province from April to August in 2001.Twenty-four broods were observed and recorded in the field.The brood size averaged 2.96±0.35.The broods preferred mixed conifer and deciduous forest with an aspect to southeast,a gentler slope,a lower gradient,and its distance to water being around 30 m and distance to forest edge being more than 60 m.By Stepwise Discriminant Analysis,the key factors related to habitat selection of the broods were distance to forest edge,diameter at the breast height of trees,cover of scrubs and types and height of grasses.Our results demonstrated that the status of grasses was a very important index to habitat selection of the broods of Reeves Pheasant;at the same time,habitat selection of the broods was strongly influenced by the vegetation structure.Therefore,the conservation of Reeves Pheasant should hammer at improving its food supply and shelter condition,preventing its habitat from deteriorating,and keeping grasses undisturbed,particularly in the brood rearing seasons.
The diversity of aboveground invertebrate communities and its correction with litter were studied using pitfall traps in three representative forests in Dinghushan National Nature.7310 invertebrate samples were collected,which belonged to 3 phyla,7 classes,31 orders,and 58 families (superfamilies).Formicidae was dominant,and Araneae,Oribatida,Entomobrydae,Biphyllidae,Gryllidae and Prosophilidae were common.The aboveground invertebrate in monsoon evergreen broad-leaf forest had the highest values of diversity (H) and evenness (E),which were similar to the values in broad-leaf and pine mixed forest and there were the lowest values in pine forest,but the value of dominance was the highest in pine forest.There was not significant similarity among the three aboveground invertebrate communities.The annual litter production was significant positive correlation with the diversity and evenness of aboveground invertebrates and significant negative correlation with the dominance.There were significant negaive correlation between return period of litter and the diversity and evenness of aboveground invertebrates.Significant positive correlation showed between return period of litter and the dominance.
A 2 years with twice a month spotted census of birds was conducted at Wujiang estuary of Jinmen Islet,Fujian Province.A total of 105 species that belong to 30 families were observed.We recorded 5514 individuals,representing 89 species and 27 families in 2000,and 9079 individuals,representing 84 species and 28 families in 2001.The curves of the fluctuation of species and individuals of birds in the 2 years were basically the same,there were two peaks on the curve,one was in spring,and the other was in autumn.The most abundance species were common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo),Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus),Eurasian Curlew (Numenius arquata),Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus),Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres),and Dunlin (Calidris alpina),which all transient and wintering shorebirds.The species diversity index was the highest in spring,the second high was in autumn,and the lowest was in summer.
Using computer connected microphone to tape a number of sounds under different conditions,and adopting cool edit 2000 (software) to analyze those sounds,the results show that the sounds of Velarifictorus asperses (Walker) can be distributed for 7 kinds of songs:calling song,warning song,provoking song,victory song,welcome song,courting song and urging song;and the experiments show that the characteristics of 7 kinds of songs are distinguished in sound acoustic property and those characteristics relate to behaviors.
Up to now 139 species of Helina have been recorded in China.This paper describes five new species of the genus Helina R.-D.,1830 from mountainous region of the western part of Sichuan Province during years 1980-1989,I.e.Helina subevecta sp.nov.,Helina solata sp.nov.,Helina zhougongshanna sp.nov.,Helina kangdingensis sp.nov.and Helina appendicivena sp.nov.The type specimens are deposited in the Medical Entomological Collection,Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology,AMMS,Beijing,China. 1 Helina subevecta sp.nov.(Figs.1-3) ♂:Body length 9.0 mm.This new species is closely related to Helina evecta (Harris,1780),but differs from the latter in the longest hairs on arista about 1.8 times the width of 3rd antennal segment;mid tibia with 6 p,hind tibia with 4-5 av,8-9 ad and 13 p. ♀:Unknown. Holotype♂,Mt.Zhougong (1 760 m;29°58′N,102°54′E),Yaan,Sichuan Province,31-Ⅲ-1982,coll.FENG Yan. 2 Helina solata sp.nov.(Figs.4-6) ♂:Body length 7.0 mm.This new species is closely related to Helina minutideleta Xue,Li et Wang,1996,but differs from the latter in parafacialia about 1.5 times the width of antenna;arista short plumose,the longest hairs on arista about 1/2 times the width of 3rd antennal segment;costal spine short;near r-m cross-vein clouded;halteres yellow;hind tibia with 6 av;3rd and 4th tergites each with a pair of large square black-brown spots;outer protuberance of distal part of cerci small. ♀:Unknown. Holotype♂,Mt.Jiaoding (3 550 m;29°23′N,102°51′E),Hanyuan,Sichuan Province,21-Ⅵ-1989,coll.FENG Yan. 3 Helina zhougongshanna sp.nov.(Figs.7-9) ♂:Body length 7.0 mm.This new species is similar to Helina densihirsuta Fang et Fan,1993,but differs from the latter in hind tibia densely with 1-2 complete rows of av,and with 3 ad,distal 3/4 with 2 rows of long fringe hairs;abdomen with gray pollen,3rd and 4th tergites with a pair of fuscous-black spots respectively,and posterior margin of 5th tergite with a pair of small triangular spots;outer protuberance of distal part of cerci large. ♀:Unknown. Holotype♂,Mt.Zhougong (1 760 m;29°58′N,102°54′E),Yaan,Sichuan Province,2-Ⅸ-1989,coll.FENG Yan. 4 Helina kangdingensis sp.nov.(Figs.10-12) ♂:Body length 6.0 mm.This new species is closely related to Helina rastrella Hsue,1985,but differs from the latter in basal 1/3 of mid femur with 4-5 blunt pv,distal 3/4 of hind femur with a row of av;abdomen is long conic,3rd and 4th tergites each with a pair of round blackbrown spots;cerci on apical part narrower in profile. ♀:Unknown. Holotype♂,Kangding (Wenquan-Erdaoqiao,2 600 m;30°07′N,102°10′E),Sichuan Province,20-Ⅶ-1982,coll.FENG Yan;paratype 1♂,Mt.Erlang (Muyepeng,2 900 m;29°53′N,102°10′E),Sichuan Province,19-Ⅸ-1980,coll.FENG Yan. 5 Helina appendicivena sp.nov.(Figs.13-15) ♂:Body length 6.5 mm.This new species is closely related to Helina blaesonerva Ma et Wang,1992,but differs from the latter in near r-m and m-m cross veins clouded,m-m cross vein with a short redundant vein on middle part;stpl 1∶2;hind tibia with medial 2-3 pv and a row of 7-8 p;outer protuberance of distal part of cerci small in posterior view. ♀:Unknown. Holotype♂,Mt.Erlang (Tree Farm,2 740 m;29°54′N,102°08′E),Sichuan Province,26-Ⅴ-1984,coll.FENG Yan;paratype 1♂,same as holotype.
A new species Pseudiberus (Pseudiberus) maoensis sp.nov.was proposed,and the first dissection study was carried out upon Bradybaena (Bradybaena) pseudocampylaea (Moellendorff),Bradybaena (Bradybaena) sueshanensis Pilsbry,and Bradybaena (Bradybaena) controversa monotaeniata Pilsbry.All examined specimens as well as types are housed in the Institute of Zoology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes progressive loss of CD4[+]T cells leading to AIDS.The mechanism of T cells deletion is not clearly understood.Apoptosis may be an important factor for the depletion.After HIV infection,continuous production of viral proteins leads to an unbalanced chronic immune activation,which is responsible for the disappearance of T helper cells primed for type-1 cytokine synthesis,thus contributing to the lack of survival factors which could prevent spontaneous lymphocyte apoptosis.The viral proteins or other factors also leads to the triggering of apoptotic programs,turning CD4[+],CD8[+]T cells and APC,into effectors of apoptosis through Fas/FasL or other pathways.Many studies have showed that apoptosis may be responsible not only for the progressive loss of CD4[+]T cells but may be operative in CD8[+]T cells,B cells,NK cells,granuloblast,nerve cells and monocytes.Conclusively,Apoptosis,being a body self-defence mechanism,can not inhibit the replication and release of HIV in the reservoir of monocytes/macrophage,on the contrary,cause the death of many uninfected cells,which may lead to the lack of control of HIV replication and to the development of severe immune deficiency responsible for the occurrence of opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Based on reports from a few field survey teams,this work summarizes data available on the species-diversity of terrestrial vertebrates in the Minshan Mountains.At the joint area of many biogeographic divisions,the species-richness of the vertebrates is high:there are 453 species,belonging to 263 genera,90 families and 27 orders.Of the animals,26 species are of amphibians;28 of reptiles;303 of birds,and 94 of mammals.The number of the species is 42% of those recorded in the whole Sichuan Province.The fauna is very complex:167 species belonging to the Palaearctic realm;248 belonging to the Oriental,and the other (38 species) to the monsoon and widely distributed type.A considerable potion of the animals (71 species,such as giant pandas and takins) are endemic to China.There are 79 species are in the list of legally protected wildlife in China,or in the Red Book of IUCN,or in the file of CITES.All these rare and endemic animals mainly occur in 19 national and provincial nature reserves sized 7 767 km[2] in total,accounting for 16% of the total mountain area.The main treats to the species include deforestation,hunting and poaching at this time.
In June,2002,3 specimens were collected in Nanshe River,a branch of Honghe River,in Hekou County of Yunnan.All of 3 specimens were measured and described,these specimens were identified as Sinogastromyzon chapaensis and kept in Department of Life Science,National Tsing Hua University (Taiwan).Description of measurements is as below:35-50 mm in standard length,dorsal fin rays iii,8;anal fin rays ii,5;pectoral fin rays xiv-xv,14-16;pelvic fin rays x-xi,11-12;lateral line scales 60-64.Body depth is 7.0-7.2 times in standard length,body width 4.3-4.6 times,head length 4.9-5.1 times,caudal length 5.4-6.0 times,caudal depth 12.7-14.0 times,predorsal fin length 2.2 times and prepelvic fin length 2.4-2.7 times.Head depth is 1.8-1.9 times in head length,head width 0.9-1.1 times,snout length 2.0-2.1 times,vertical diameter of eye 4.7-5.0 times and interorbital width 2.0-2.3 times.Caudal depth is 2.2-2.6 times in caudal length.Mouth width is 3.7-4.6 times in head width.