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2002年  第23卷  第2期

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研究论文
Using 8 microsatellite markers of the poly (CA) type isolated from common carp by Crooijmans et al.(1997),we analyzed four artificially gynogenetic families of ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).In the four gynogenetic families,two originated from Kohaku strain,other two from Taisho and Showa respectively.Five individuals were randomly sampled from each artificially gynogenetic family.Electrophoretic patterns showed that the 8 pairs of microsatellite primers all reproducibly produced the well-identifiable and homologous DNA fragments.The number of alleles per marker varied from 1 to 11,and the size of alleles ranged from 68 bp to 264 bp.Abundant polymorphic DNA fragments among 20 individuals were observed in electrophoretic patterns produced by primers MFW4,MFW7,MFW19,MFW20,MFW23 and MFW24.The genetic polymorphism were observed between gynogenetic families and within intra-family individuals.The phenotypes of individuals of TaS and RW[1] differed from each other,and the average distances among TaS or RW[1] were 0.28.The analysis of alleles and genotypes revealed higher genetic diversity among individuals of the gynogenetic families.It suggested that each color strain of ornamental carp was selected through consistent hybridization between strains and the genomes of them are highly hybrid,so it cant produce pure lines only through one generation gynogenesis.The four artificially gynogenetic families produced in this study will offer necessary samples for further studying on genetic mechanism of body color types in ornamental carp,and the microsatellite markers will provide useful tools for marker-assisted selection breeding or gene map of ornamental carp.
A total of 233 birds,belonging to 33 species,were caught and banded during August 14-26,2001 at eight sites in the Altay Area and Turpan Depression of Xinjiang,China.About 17 species were banded for the first time in China.These included Nightingales (Luscinia sp.),Savis Warbler (Locustella luscinioides),Grasshopper Warbler (L.naevia),Pallass Grasshopper Warbler (L.certhiola),Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus),Blyths Reed Warbler (A.dumetorum) and Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria),most of which are from Sylviinae and Turdinae.
For comparison of hatching rate,fertilized eggs of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus were cultured in different mediums.The results showed that normal and total fries in 1×Holtfreter were the highest,reached 54.8% and 59.2%,respectively.There was no difference in hatching rate of normal fries between 1/2×Holtfreter,1/10×Holtfreter,cold boiled water and changed mediums.They reached 48.0%,49.6%,50.0% and 48.8%,respectively.Rate of abnormal fries was the highest in cold boiled water,reached 8.8%.PBS was not suitable for cultured medium.Mechanic injury had no considerable effects on hatching rate of embryos (73.39% vs.75.70%),but abnormal fries increased considerably (8.8% vs.0).Cultured cells from caudal fin of gynogenetic bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) were used as donor cells,and unfertilized eggs of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus were used as recipient eggs.Microsatellite marker analysis showed that the nuclei of nuclear transfer embryos came from the donor nuclei,the nucleus contained in the recipient eggs was rejected or degraded.The passage number of cultured cells critically affected developmental rate of nuclear transfer embryos.With the increase of the passage number,developmental rate of nuclear transfer embryos was decreased.Serial nuclear transfer facilitated reprogramming of nuclear transfer embryos.Developmental rate could be heightened by serial nuclear transfer,especially for the first serial nuclear transfer of somatic cells,rate of late blastula of nuclear transfer embryos increased abruptly from 7.69% to 43.84%.There was no considerable difference in developmental rate of nuclear transfer embryos between Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Paramisgurnus dabryanus unfertilized recipient eggs (7.69% vs.7.02%).
Water-soluble skin secretions of six common Chinese amphibians were studied for their biological and enzymatic activities.The skin secretions of Tylototriton verrucosus,Bombina maxima,and Bufo andrewsi were found toxic to mice with the intraperitoneal LD[50] of 11.5 mg/kg,18.8 mg/kg,and 264 mg/kg,respectively.No acute lethal toxicities were observed for the skin secretions of Rana nigromaculata,Rana guentheri and Rana limnocharis in a dose up to 500 mg/kg.The lethal toxicities of the skin secretions of T.verrucosus and B.maxima to mice are in the same grade as those of Viperidae snake venoms.The toxic components in T.verrucosus and B.maxima skin secretions are the proteins with molecular weights ranging from 3 to 60 kDa.All the skin secretions had both proteolytic activity and trypsin inhibitory activity.The skin secretions from T.verrucosus,B.maxima and B.andrewsi also displayed wide spectrum antimicrobial activity.On the other hand,the skin secretions from B.andrewsi and B.maxima showed cytotoxicity on human cancer cells.All the six samples had not significant effects on mammalian blood coagulation system.Phospholipase A[2] activity was only found in the skin secretions of T.verrucosus.None of these skin secretions showed acetylcholine esterase activity.
We used the Bat Sound Detector and the Professional Recorder to collect the echo of Rhinolophus pearsoni,and then analyzed the echoes by the software Cool Editor 2000.It showed that this bat species is a kind of FM/CF/CM bat,the echolocation calls comprise two constant frequency signals which two modulated frequency signals attached.The frequency of first CF signal is (61.08±0.019) kHz,the frequency of second CF signal is (60.97±0.03) kHz.After researched the foraging behavior of R.pearsoni in field,meanwhile,analyzed the food compositions by used Shannon-Weiner diversity index and Spearman correlation analyses,it suggested that this bat captured the mid sized insects of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera etc.by flycatching method mainly in evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest in summer.This species of bats showed feeding selective to the types and body size of prey.Meanwhile,it suggested that there maybe relativity between the echolocation signals function and morphological feature of R.pearsoni.
soil mesofauna in 4 types of soil gradient in acidity was investigated in beach land of Eastern Shanghai in 1999.Relations between soil fauna and soil acidity were studied by using community parameters of species richness,individual abundance,diversity index and evenness.The results indicated that soil Collembola and Acarina were susceptive to soil acidity.Species richness,diversity index and evenness of Collembola community and species richness,individual abundance,diversity index and evenness of Acarina community well reflected soil pH,with correlation coefficients being more than 0.9 and around 0.85 for Collembola and Acarina,respectively.In conclusion,these community parameters of Collembola and Acarina can distinguish the soils with pH more different,Paranura sp.(Collemboa) can be used for indicating the soils with pH closer,while Hypogastrura sp.(Collembola) for assessment of the soil with pH more different and higher or under more stress conditions.
We studied the nest-site selection of five species of secondary cavity-nesting birds (SCNB):Sturnus cineraceus,Ficedula zanthopygia,Parus major,Parus palustris,and Sitta europaea in secondary forest in the natural protective area of Zuojia,Jilin Province.The results show that the SCNB nest-sites have general characters in selecting horizontal diameter of entrance,vertical diameter of entrance,inner diameter of cavity,vertical depth of cavity and entrance orientations.The cavity entrance orientations of the used cavities are fewer in the orientations from northwest 315° to 360° and southwest 180° to 225° than other orientations,but the situation of the unused cavities are opposite;there exist signifficant differences between the used and unused cavities.The blocked cavities were used by different individuals after reopening.Results show that the natural cavities resource appear to be a limiting factor for SCNB nest-site selecton.
The testicular development cycle of Scylla serrata can be divided into 5 periods:the spermatogonium stage,the spermatocyte stage,the spermatid stage,the sperm stage and the resting stage.Based on the division of the development cycle,the diameter of the seminiferous tubule and the ratio of its mature sections can reflect the process of the testicular development.For the first time,the ratio of the mature sections is presented as a characteristic index of the testicular development.
Two new species of Saperdini of Lamiinae are described in this paper.All the type specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection,Southwest Agricultural University. 1 Paraglenea nigromaculata sp.nov.(Figs.1-4) Body moderate,black clothed with ocherous to sulphur yellow pubescence on most of ventral surfaces;head and antennae yellowish-brown,blackish-brown on first two segments and the apical parts of 3-11 segments of antennae except the basal portion of 3-11 segments which covered with fine gray white pubescence.Pronotum black with orange pubescence,densely.Elytral middle with a transverse black macula.Ventral surface black densely covered with yellowish-brown pubescence except last segment,yellowish-brown. Frons subquadrate,lower eye-lobe longer than broad,longer than gena in male and the same deep in female;antennae as long as body.Pronotum finely punctate,densely,a middle ridge. Male genetalia (Figs.2-4):Lateral lobes short and soft,furnished with fine setae apically;ringed part geniculated and rimed;median lobes with median structs moderately curved and the fomer equal to the latter;ventral margin of median orifice pointed.Internal sac decorated with a pair of basal armatures and uniform microtrichia inside and with two bone rods and a flagellum.With single ejaculatory duct. Length:12.5-16.5 mm;breadth:4-6 mm. Holotype ♂,Yan an (36°35′N,109°28′E),Shaanxi Province,1980,by SHUN Yi-zhi.Paratype:1♂,Daixian County (39°5′N,112°58′E),Shanxi,9-Ⅴ-1987;2♀♀,Datai,Huhehaote (40°52′N,111°39′E),Neimeng,21-Ⅵ-1964,by LIU Xin-hua. Distinguished from its congeners by the colour of elytra and elytral maculations and from Paraglenea fortunei (Saunders)by male genitalia in the following characters:basal armatures 2 pairs instead of 3 piece and 2 bone rods in apex short istead of slender,etc. 2 Glenea nigromarginella sp.nov.(Figs.5-8) Body moderate and ochraeous;black in vertex,occiput,antennae and eyes;sides of pronotum,elytral lateral margins,abdomen,external of femora and tibiae,tarsi,apex of hind femora and hind tibiae;ochraeous in others of dorsal surface. Frons densely clothed with yellowishbrown pubescence and decorated with black erect setae,pronotal disc densely covered with ochraeous pubescence and margins of pronotum with golden pubescence.Scutellum entirely clothed with golden pubescence.Elytron covered with ochraeous pubescence and with black setae in base;ventral surface densely clothed with golden pubescence.Antennae slightly longer than body,scape cylindrial,shorter than the 3rd and longer than the 4th,the basal four segments densely bearied cilia on beneath.Pronotum puctured,densely punctured in elytra. Mele genitalia (Figs.6-8):Laterallobes short,oblique at apex with little setae.Median lobe with median structs narrowed at base and broaden at apex.Median lobe shorter than median structs;ventral margin of median orifice produced.Internal sac large with basal amatures and two bone rods;with single ejaculatory duct. Length:14.5 mm;breadth:4.5 mm. Holotype ♂,Longzhou(22°21′N,106°53′E),Guangxi Province,30-Ⅴ-1997,by YANG Mao-fa. Distinguished from its congeners by the colour of body,pronotal sides and elytral margins,external margins of legs,apex of hind femora and hindtibiae.Differ from Glenea cantor (Fabricius) by male genitalia in the follows:ventral margin of median orifice projected instead of pointed and basal armatures 2 pairs,1 stound and short,the other slender,etc.
The phylogeny of Diplura,an intermediate group between Entognatha and Ectognatha,is on hot debate now.Two main questions,one is whether Diplura is a monophyletic group,and the other is whether Diplura is sister group to the Insecta s.str.,constitute the contentious focuses.The settlement of these two questions is also one of the key points for resolving the phylogenetic arrangement of hexapod orders.In this paper,we reviewed the arguments and agreements about the phylogenetic position of Diplura of relevant groups based on morphological and anatomical evidences,as well as the recent advances on molecular systematics.
The economically important alien leafminers (Liriomyza sativae Blanchard and L.huidobrensis Blanchard) have inflicted great damage to vegetables and flowers in China.This paper describes the invading status,channels,characters of invasive leafminers,and the methods applied to control them.The mechanisms underlying the adaptation of invasive leafminers to host plants,climate and human activities are analyzed.Practical management strategies to cope with the status quo of leafminers invasion in China are also proposed,which will provide a powerful promotion in prediction and control of biological invasion.
Mammalian gender preselection is to achieve desired offspring sex ratio by means of sperm sexing or embryo sexing.Due to its promising application in the field of human health and stock breeding,its a longing desire for the human being.In this article,we reviewed the history of the development of gender preselection methods and the latest advances in this field.For each method,its commented on the theoretical foundation,the advantage and disadvantage,their potential in the practical usage and the future development.
The genetic diversity and relationship among 10 populations of mulberry wild silkworm,Bombyx mandarina,from 7 regions of China and two races of silkworm,Bombyx mori,were analyzed by AFLP technique.The results showed that the genetic distance of inter- and intra-populations in mulberry wild silkworm from three regions,Hangzhou,Shaanxi and Chongqing,was even larger than that of races in domestic silkworm.Extensive genetic variation existed among 10 populations of mulberry wild silkworm.The genetic distance between these populations ranges from 0.164 to 0.444 (the average value is 0.3826) and the average heterozygosity value of them is 0.061,which also indicates that mulberry wild silkworm is rich in genetic diversity.
The biological activities of two IGRs,Methoprene and Pyriproxyfen,on Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein),a main insect pest occurring in the preserver,were investigated systematically.By infiltrating two IGRs into the fodder,the different treatments and replication were set up based on the lethal effect of these two IGRs at different concentrations as well as the influence on development time and survivorship of L.entomophila nymphs.The results showed that two IGRs had obvious lethal effect on nymph,and the lethal effect of Pyriproxyfen on nymph was better than that of Methoprene.The development of L.entomophila nymph was delayed when insects fed on the food treated with Pyriproxyfen.These two IGRs had no acute lethal effect on adult;however,the adult fecundity was in hibited significantly.The inhibition of Methoprene on adult fecundity was 5 times greater than Pyriproxyfen.In addition,these two IGRs had obvious lethal effects on egg hatching,whereas the effect of Pyriproxyfen on egg hatching was greater than Methoprene.
The effects of radix astragali and acid-stress on contents of serum complement C[3] and C[4] in juvenile soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) were researched.Both control and experimental groups were designed,and the diet of experimental groups was added 5% raw material powder of radix astragali.After feeding 4 weeks,the half of the soft-shelled turtles were sampled,and the others were also did after 24 h under acid stress condition.The contents of serum complement C[3] and C[4] were determined.Results demonstrated that the radix astragali significantly improved the production of complement C[3] and C[4],and the acid stress significantly decreased the content of complement C[3] and C[4],while the radix astragali had protective effects on this decreasing.The results suggested that the radix astragali had the ability of against acid stress.
Observations and investigations on the breeding habits of the Green-backed Herons (Butorides striatus) were carried out from April to September in 2001 in Hefei.Most nest-sites were selected in tall broadleaf trees near buildings.In most cases,a single nest was located in one tree,without neighboring with other herons.Normally a nest had 3-5 eggs,and the incubation period was 21 days.After being fledged for 41 days,the young birds flight off the nest on the 42nd day and the rate of survival upon flying away was 62.5%.The young birds fed small fish.Fiftysix effective nests were found in 4 campuses and a park,and therefore the total 224 individuals were estimated.The Green-backed Herons in Hefei is the first breeding record.