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2001年  第22卷  第6期

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研究论文
By one step affinity chromatography (acid treated Sepharose 4B as matrix,tyrode solution containing 0.2 mol/L D-galactose as eluting solution),a phospholipase A[2] was isolated from Bungarus fasciatus venom.Its partial N-terminal sequence is identical to previously reported Bungarus fasciatus venom phospholipase A[2] isozyme Ⅵ (Lu & Lo,1978).This phospholipase A[2] has only weak phospholipase A[2] activity,no hemolytic nor hemorrhage activity.The enzyme exists as monomer and its molecular weight is 14 kDa,and has a relatively high carbohydrate content (13.4% w/w).
The neurotropic effect of the distal stump of transected sciatic nerve on regenerating neurites emerging from the proximal stump was investigated in rats by the co-culture of excised dorsal root ganglia and segments of degenerated and nondegenerated sciatic nerves.In all cultures,neurites from the ganglion extended directly towards the degenerated distal stump and not towards the undegenerated nerve segment.Analysis of the supernatants of nerve homogenate by native polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis demonstrated that 235 and 18 kDa proteins were upregul ated in the degenerated distal stumps and that 90 and 65 kDa special proteins were expressed by these stumps but not by normal nerve.Placement of the individual protein strips in dissociated cultures of dorsal root ganglion cells showed that the 90 kDa strips possessed strong neurotropic activity.Neurons survived selectively on these strips and outgrowing neurites elongated on the strips paralled to the direction of the band.It is concluded that these bands contain chemotropic substances,the nature of which requires further investigation.
Selected body temperature (Tsel),critical thermal maximum (Tcmax),critical thermal minimum (Tcmin),and influence of temperature on food assimilation and locomotor performance were studied in adult male lacertid lizards,Eremias brenchleyi,from a population in Suzhou,Anhui,eastern China.Tsel,Tcmax and Tcmin were 33.7,43.6 and 3.3℃,respectively.Temperature significantly affected food passage time,food intake,apparent digestive coefficient (ADC),assimilation efficiency (AE) and locomotor performance of lizards.The food passage time decreased with increase in temperature from 26 to 30℃ and increased at higher temperatures.Food intake,ADC and AE were lower at 26 and 28℃ than at higher temperatures.The sprint speed increased with increase in body temperature from 19 to 34℃,and then decreased dramatically at higher temperatures.The length of continuous locomotion was apparently greater at 31 and 34℃ than at other lower or higher temperatures,and decreased dramatically at the body temperatures higher than 36℃.The average number of stops in the racetrack was significantly greater in lizards with body temperatures higher than 34℃ than in those with body temperatures from 19 to 34℃.Our results suggest that the optimal body temperatures for locomotion are 31-34℃,and the body temperature has pervasive effects on food assimilation and locomotion performance in lizards Eremias brenchleyi.
We carried out behavioral observations on the Père David s deer (Elaphurus davidianus) stags in the Beijing Milu Park to investigate the vocal display and mating success in different social rank-classes during rut.The stags were classified into three rank-classes according to their rutting behavior:"harem master","challenger" and "bachelor".Bellowing,herding and mating were recorded in 12 stags:4 harem masters,5 challengers and 3 bachelors.The effectiveness value (E) were defined,that is E=A/T,to assess the effectiveness of herding or mating attempts made by stags (T represents the frequency of herding or mating attempts made by stag and A represents the frequency of herding or mating accepted by hinds).Results exhibited that:1)Frequency of bellowing,herding or mating showed significantly differences among "harem masters","challengers" and "bachelors"(P<0.05).2)Effectiveness value of herding also differed significantly among "harem masters","challengers" and "bachelors" (P<0.05).3)Effectiveness value of mating was significantly different between harem masters and challengers (P<0.05).We conclude that bellowing of Père David s deer stags strongly associates with its rank-class,and rank-class affects the mating success of stag directly.In addition,we recorded another new vocal display pattern in stags—barking,which was only recorded in hinds previously (Wemmer et al.,1983).
This paper studies litter-layer beetle species diversity and its changes in different habitats and local areas in the middle part of the Hengduan Range,a transition region between the east zones encircling the Pacific and the west zones of ancient Mediterranean,characterized by a series of paralleled mountain ranges and rivers from south to north,and with a sharp altitude differentiation.The study was conducted in Northwest Yunnan Province (E 99.0°-100.8°;N 26.7°-28.7°) and 33 plots were investigated to represent five different kinds of habitats,which located in six local areas,namely Mt.Daxue of Zhongdian County,Bitahai of Zhongdian County,Mt.Baimang of Deqin County,Shiguzhen of Lijiang County,Mt.Yulong Nature Reserve,Yongsheng County.Barber traps was employed.Totally,sixteen beetle families were found in the 2852 captured specimens,of which 41.3% was Staphylinidae and 25.9% was Carabidae;Scarabaeidae,Curculionidae and Tenebroinidae were each above 5%,and the other 11 families all together were less than 13%.There were no remarkable difference to be found in the values of species diversity (H),evenness (J) and richness (S),and individual number,if comparisons were made between local areas,but except for Yongsheng County and Bitahai of Zhongdian County.The former,characterizing by intensive farming,showed a relative low value of richness and individual number,whereas the latter,influenced by intensive herding and tourism,exhibited a low species diversity and richness.Computing the similarity coefficient (q) of beetle communities of the six local areas,we found that they tended to be less similar if geographic distances were longer between any two local sites,but it was true only when Yongsheng County was not included.Coniferous forests and meadows showed relatively higher abundance than the other habitats when we considered all beetles together,Carabidae only,or Scarabaeidae only;Staphylinidae was yet more abundant in broad-leaved forests and coniferous forests,Curculionidae in broadleaved forests and Tenebrionidae in shrubs.However,not all of these abundance differences among five different habitats showed statistic significance.If the whole scope of elevation from 1500 to 4500 m above the see level in the studied areas was divided into 6 intervals of 500 m,two peak values of diversity,richness and individual number corresponded to 2500-3000 m and 3500-4000 m respectively.Based on these results,we can conclude that geographic distances and habitat differences may influence species diversity and composition similarity of the litter-layer beetle communities in Northwest Yunnan Province;intensive activities of agriculture and tourism may disturb the natural patterns of changes of litter-layer beetle diversity in the studied region.
The spermatogenesis of the teleost,Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson) was studied.There were five developmental stages in the spermatogenesis.They were primary spermatogonium,secondary spermatogonium,primary spermatocyte,secondary spermatocyte and spermatid.The spermatid differentiated into sperm via the process of spermiogenesis.During the stages of primary and secondary spermatogonia,components of the nucleolus were excluded from the nuclei.They were called chromatoid bodies.There were many chromatoid bodies in the cytoplasm.The chromatoid bodies first located in hollows on surface of the nucleus.Then they dispersed into the cytoplasm.It was suggested that the components of the chromatoid body were ribosomes.So many ribosomes produced by the primary and secondary spermatogonia may be used in the spermatogenesis.During the period of zygotene,prophaseⅠ,paired homologous chromosomes started to form synaptonemal complexes.The synaptonemal complexes were fully formed at pachytene and dissolved afterward.It was suggested that the synaptonemal complex was the symbol of genetic recombination between two homologous chromosomes.During the process of spermiogenesis,flagellum was formed first.Then the nucleus of the spermatid condensed step by step.
An optical and transmission electron microscope study on nerve tissue of thoracic ganglion and muscles in the crab,Eriocheir sinensis which suffering from tremor disease,indicated that rickettsia-like organisms (RLO) infested in glial cells,connective tissue and intercellular space.In the connection between nerve and muscle fibers-motor end-plate,there were also a lot of RLOs in groups,just like the way in the nerve tissue.Thoracic ganglion is a nerve plexus controlling the moving of periopods.The fact that RLO infested this tissue and the motor end-plate verifies that RLO closely relates to the tremor disease,which main disorder is paroxysmal tremor of the periopods.This is firmly confirmed that RLO is a pathogenic parasite of the tremor disease.
Brain and skull measures and brain weights of five species,Microtus mandarinus,M.fostis,Myospalax cansus,Cricelulus triton,and Apodomus agraius were surveyed.Ratios of measurements and body length,ratios of brain weight and body weight,and cephalization index (k) were calculated.Ratios of cranium measures and body length (RCM),ratios of brain weight and body weight (RBRW) of Microtus mandarinus are larger than other species.RCM and RBRW of Myospalax cansus are minor.The sequence of k from large to small in five species is Microtus mandarinus,Apodomus agraius,M.fostis,Cricelulus triton,and Myospalax cansus.Having no sexual differences in brain measures and having larger brain in mandarin vole may consist with its monogamous mating system.Smaller brain in Myospalax cansus may be related with its polygamous mating system and solitariness.Ratios of zygomatic width and body length (RZW) and ratios of length of upper molar row and body length (RMRL) in Microtus mandarinus and Myospalax cansus are larger than others.This is because the formers feed on leaves,stalks or roots of plant which consist of more cellulose and Apodomus agraius and Cricelulustriton of the others mainly feed on seeds.Microtus mandarinus and Myospalax cansus have smaller cerebellums,more slender optical nerve and larger olfactory bulbs than Apodomus agraius,M.fostis and Cricelulus triton.These maybe relevant to adaptation and evolution of their living underground or on the floor.
In this paper three new species of genus Lordiphosa were reported from Yunnan,China.These three new species all belong to nigricolor species-group.All of the types were deposited in College of Life Sciences,Peking University. 1 Lordiphosa nigrifemur sp.nov.(Fig.1) Diagnosis:Femora dark brown to black except for terminal parts.Paramere (Fig.1:D,E) caudally bifurcated:dorsal branch approximately twice as long as ventral branch;anterior process small,ventral margin with ca.6 sensilla points medially.Aedeagus(Fig.1:D,E) double branched,bifurcated submedially at dorsal part of each branch,finger-shaped at the tips,dorsal process shorter;aedeagal basal process connected to gonopod with membrane,bearing numerous finger-shaped processes.Male Terminalia:Epandrium (Fig.1A) nearly entirely pubescent except for ventral and anterior margin,with ca.8 setae laterally and dorsally and ca.8 setae on caudoventral margin.Surstylus (Fig.1:A,B) with ca.12 dark brown,apically pointed primary prensisetae decreasing in size downward and arranging in convex row on nearly entire length of distal margin;with a few long stout spines on inner surface and 2 setulae caudoventrally.Cercus (Fig.1:A,C) oval,entirely pubescent,with ca.12 setae;tapering ventrally,with ca.5 stout spines in a row on caudoventral corner.Hypandrium(Fig.1:D,E) slightly triangular,without paramedian spines.Gonopods(Fig.1:D,E) fused,saddle-shaped in lateral view,with slender process at caudoventral margin.Apodeme(Fig.1:D,E) broad terminally,dark brown,approximately twice as long as aedeagus.Female Terminalia:Oviscapt (Fig.1F) apically round,submedially broad,with ca.13 marginal and ca.7 apically pointed lateral ovisensilla.Spermatheca (Fig.1G) oblate,with shallow indentation on capsule;spermathecal duct introverted into the inner tip of spermatheca.The basal half of introvert and duct both wrinkled. Holotype:♂,Deqin,Yunnan Province,China,alt.ca.3 650 m,8-Ⅵ-1994,coll.ZHANG Wen-Xia. Allotype:1♀,same data as holotype. Paratype:5♂,5♀,same data as holotype. Distribution:China (Yunnan). Relationship:This species resembles Lordiphosa nigricolor (Strobl,1898),but differs from it in the diagnosis characters,especially in the complicated structure of aedeagal basal finger-shaped process. Etymology:Referring to femora dark brown to black except for terminal parts. 2 Lordiphosa ludianensis sp.nov.(Fig.2) Diagnosis:Epandrium (Fig.2A) protrused slightly at the middle of the caudal margin.Paramere (Fig.2:B,C) not branched,long,slightly sclerotized,dilated basally,with ca.4 sensilla on ventral margin.Aedeagus(Fig.2:B,C) double branched,bifurcated submedially at dorsal part of each branch,finger-shaped at the tips,dorsal process shorter;aedeagal basal process with 2 very long finger-shaped processes caudoventrally.Hypandrium pubescent at the caudodorsal corner. Male Terminalia:Epandrium(Fig.2A) with ca.10 setae laterally to dorsally and ca.9 setae on caudoventral margin.Surstylus(Fig.2A) with ca.16 dark brown,apically round primary prensisetae.Cercus (Fig.2A) with ca.17 setae.Gonopods (Fig.2:B,C) with an apically round process at caudoventral margin.Apodeme (Fig.2:B,C) dark brown,approximately three times as long as aedeagus. Holotype:♂,Ludian,Lijiang County,Yunnan Province,China,alt.ca.3 050 m,13-Ⅵ-1994,coll.ZHANG Wen-Xia. Paratype:1♂,same data as holotype. Distribution:China (Yunnan). Relationship:This species resembles the foregoing new species in the structure of surstylus and finger-shaped aedeagal basal processes,but it can be distinguished from it by the diagnosis characters,especially by the structure of paramere. Etymology:Pertaining to the type locality. 3 Lordiphosa shii sp.nov.(Fig.3) Diagnosis:Cercus (Fig.3A) tapering ventrally,with a tuft of stout spines on caudoventral corner,ca.9.Epandrium (Fig.3A) narrow and pointed ventrally,with an apically pointed process at the middle of caudal margin.Paramere (Fig.3:B,C)long,bow-shaped in lateral view,ventrally recurved process arched;caudally recurved process bifurcated,ventral branch broad,apically pointed,slightly curved outwards at the tip,strongly sclerotized,with ca.4 long sensilla on dorsal margin and ca.1 sensilla on ventral margin;dorsal branch slender,longer than both aedeagus and ventral branch,with long hairs at the tip. Male Terminalia:Epandrium (Fig.3A) broad,pubescent except for anterior margin and the ventral and central processes;with ca.18 setae laterally to dorsally;with ca.8 setae on ventral process.Surstylus (Fig.3A) somewhat rectangular,with ca.20 primary prensisetae in concave row on nearly entirely length of distal margin;with a tuft of long stout spines on inner surface and ca.7 setulae caudoventrally.Cercus (Fig.3A) oval,pubescent only on anterior margin,with ca.19 setae;tapering ventrally,with a tuft of stout spines on narrow ventral margin.Hypandrium (Fig.3:B,C) somewhat rectangular,narrower at ventral 1/3 part,pubescent caudoventrally,with a pair of long paramedian spines.Gonopods (Fig.3:B,C) fused,surrounding aedeagus and parameres.Aedeagus (Fig.3:B,C) slender,with micro-hairs on somewhat swollen tip,with transparent membrane-like stucture caudoventrally.Apodeme (Fig.3:B,C) broad in lateral view,approximate ly one and a half as long as aedeagus. Female Terminalia:Oviscapt (Fig.3D) apically round,submedially broad,with ca.15 apically round marginal and ca.8 apically pointed lateral ovisensilla.Spermatheca (Fig.3E) oblate,introvert deep,nearly reached into the inner tip of spermatheca.Introvert smooth,duct wrinkled. Holotype:♂,Pianma,Lushui County,Yunnan Province,China,22-Ⅵ-1994,coll.ZHANG Wen-Xia. Allotype:1♀,same data as holotype. Paratype:1♀,same data as holotype. Distribution:China (Yunnan). Relationship:This species belongs to nigricolor species-group,but differs from the foregoing two species and L.nigricolor (Strobl,1898) in that it has no serrated,conical or finger-shaped aedeagal basal process,it can be distinguished from other species in this species-group by the diagnosis characters. Etymology:shii,in memory of Prof.SHI Li-Ming,Kunming Institute of Zoology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The present paper deals with three new species of the genera Phorbia,Pegoplata and Pegomya from Yunnan Province,China,namely Phorbia fani sp.nov.,Pegoplata lengshanensis sp.nov.and Pegomya yunnanensis sp.nov.All the type specimens are deposited in Institute of Entomology,Shenyang Normal University,Shenyang.
Old sample DNA is a important heritage resource,and frequently used in the research of origin and evolution of life.Here we introduced the studying aspects of old sample DNA,including the characteristic,the extraction methods,PCR amplification,sequencing,the criterion of authenticity and the advances of its utility in life science research.We also discussed the problems in the old sample DNA studies.
The article summarized the discovery,polymorphyism and important function of the timeless gene.It is one of the two firstly discovered biological clock genes.The circadian rhythms are controlled through autoregulatory feedback loop by the products of the biological clock genes including PER,TIM,CLOCK and CYCLES.The TIM may be regulated by light and form a allodimmer with PER,and the allodimmer can drive the circadian behavioral processes of Drosophila.The lucubrating of the mechanism of biological clock genes will greatly be helpful to explain the human complex behaviors.
Insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ) is a single-chain polypeptide with structural homolog to proinsulin.It plays an important role in regulating somatic growth in vertebrates via growth hormone.To study fish IGF-Ⅰs structure,function and its potential application in aquaculture,we cloned the insulinlike growth factor-Ⅰ cDNA from bluntnose bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).Total RNA was isolated from liver tissue.The cDNA encoding IGF-Ⅰ peptide was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy using isolated total RNA as template.The amplified cDNA fragment was inserted to vector pUC18.The cloned cDNA was sequenced and the amino acid sequence of bluntnose bream IGF-Ⅰ was predicted.The nucleotide sequence showed that the cDNA encode 161 amino acids including signal peptide and B,C,A,D,E six domains.Analysis of E domain indicates that the cloned bluntnose bream IGF-Ⅰ cDNA belongs to IGF-ⅠEa-2 subtype.
A new software,of EPG technique,Realdisplay,was developed for the study of feeding behavior of piercing-sucking insects on plants.The new software could divide,according to the users will,the monitor screen into several parts,each simultaneously displaying the EPG signals of the specific channel and sampling frequency.The researcher could exactly and simultaneously know and control the insect feeding behavior.The voltage at each moment is deposited,therefore,it is convenient for the following analysis and statistics.The software strengthens the function of EPG technique and expands its application field.It provides a useful tool for the study on the details of feeding behavior of piercing-sucking insects on plants,and for the study on the interaction among the insect,virus and the host plant.
Fifty Hy-Line chicks were divided into 5 groups 10 for each.They were orally inoculated,8.0×10[6],1.6×10[6],3.2×10[6],6.4×10[6] oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi respecitivelly when they were 2 days old.The chick were killed at different intermission time postinfection,got trachea,burea of Fabricious (BF),and throat for study by scanning electron microscopy.C.baileyi endogenous development occurred primarily in the trachea,BF and throat.There are two kind of schizont (type Ⅰ meronts contained eight merozoites,types Ⅱ meronts contained four merozoites).The freed sporozoites or merozoites attached to epithelial cells where they become drumstick-like from banana-like,and then formed spherical trophozoites.There were two kinds of parasitophorous vacuoles (one had spherical residual body in it and the other had no such thing).Microgamete escaping from maternal body and endogenous development stages in goblet cell were observed.Cryptosporidia caused cilia lodging arranging disorder,deciliaing and cilia fusing of chicken trachea,epithelium membrane of bursa swollen with microvillus deciliaing or fusing,arranging disorder,excess mucus secretory product,mononuclear cell infiltration.Rugae were formed on the epithelium membrane because of epithelial cell hypertrophy or hyperlasia.