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1997年  第18卷  第4期

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研究论文
The microvasculature of the lung of Coluber spinalis (Peters) and Bufo raddei Strauch was studied with the replicascanning electron microscope method.The results show that the inside wall of Coluber spinalis lung there are many reticular septa and secondary septa and third septa so that it is separated to a lot of small room,subordinate room and pulmonary alveoli.The inside wall of Bufo raddei Strauch lung there are only reticular septa and secondary septa.In the all septa and pulmonary alveoli there are plenty of capillary.They anastomosed to a single layer dense network each other.In addition,the relationship between the microvasculature of the two animals lung and respiratory rate are also discused.
This paper deals with the studies on the morphology and anatomy of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus.The paper composed of two parts:the characters for external morphology and internal anatomy.Its living environment,food habits and growth are also described.The digestive system and reproductive system are studied by transmission electron microscope.The cells of the stomach wall contain numerous mitochondria.
During the geological vicissitudes period of the earth,the geographical distribution of ancient termites changed their living locality by the affections of paleogeography,bioclimatology and paleontology.The ancient termites moved away their vivosphare from northern habitats to southern regions,from dry and cold districts to wet and hot areas in the world by degression.In the long process of biological evolution of termites,some genera and species have exterminated,some have evolved to new genera in the new enviromental and paleoecological system,and the others survived and remained to the contemporary age.
In this paper three new and 8 known species of Amiota (Phortica) were reported from Hengduan Mountains Region,China.The 8 known species are omega,gamma,flexuosa,cardua,pseudotau,seata,pseudogigas,excrescentiosa.All the types are deposited in Kunming Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences.
In the present paper,three new species of Tetrigidae are described.Type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology,Shaanxi Normal University.
The present paper gaves the description of a new species named Barbronia yunnanensis sp.nov.and the diagnosis of Salifa lateroculata (Kaburaki,1921) which is a new record in China.Type specimens of B.yunnanensis sp.nov.and some specimens of S.lateroculata are deposited in the Institute of Hydrobiology,Academia Sinica,Wuhan.
Swimming and breathing behaviours of a captive baiji Lipotes vexillifer were observed in a Baiji Aquarium from May to October 1992.Swimming speeds could be divided into 3 types:slow swimming (SS),middle-speed swimming (MS) and fast swimming (FS).SS was the most common swimming pattern.The average time portion of SS per hour in daytime and at night showed no significant difference,however MSs and FSs portions were obviously greater in daytime than those at night.It can be seen that baijis movement slowed down at night was due to the lower occurred rates of MS and FS,but not increasing SS time portion.The average breathing per hour was 106.05 times (1.77 times per minute).The mean of breathing interval was 30.62±24.55 s,ranging between 1.04-316 s.The respiration model of the baiji was cycles of one long interval breathing accompanying with 1-8 short interval breathings.SSs time portion per hour showed no obvious influence on breathing frequency of the baiji,but the frequency showed significant positive correlation with MSs and FSs time portions per hour.It was deduced that MS and FS would significantly increase the energy consumption by getting more air in comparison with SS.
The paper deals with 7 growth indices of Mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus Milne-Edwards) by the principal component analysis,such as weight,body length,body weight excluding viscera,tail length,length of hint foot,greatest length of skull and zygomatic width.The results are as follows:the growth indices of skull are the leading facters in all indices with the highest contribution rates (99.24%,99.16%) for the correlation matrix.Length of hint foot and body weight exduding viscera are in the second level.The correlativity of weight and the growth of the vole is lower,as well as body length which contribution rate is negative value.Based upon the necessity of precision and operation,the authors suggest that weight excluding viscera is the best indicator in the age determination of Mandarin vole.
soil animal communities were investigated in three different man-made plant communities in dry season (April),1991.Species composition,the number of individuals,the dominance,evenness,diversity and similarity coefficient of soil animal communities were analysed.The results showed that Acarina and Collembola were the dominants in the three plots.The character of vertical distribution of soil animals was that the individuals and spieces of soil animal on the ground are more than those in the soil.The rubber-tea community had the highest both in species and individual numbers.The secondary forest showed the highest diversity and evenness.The highest dominance occurred in the man-made community with multi-layer structure.The similarity coefficient between the soil animal communities in the man-made with multi-layer community and the secondary forest is the highest one.
In this paper the karyotype,C-banding and Ag-NORs of Semilabeo prochilus from Jin Sha River system (Yunnan Province) have been studied.The diploid number of Semilabeo prochilus is 50(16 m+20 sm+14 st)and NF=86.The centromeric distribution of heterchromatin has been demonstraed in most of chromosomes.The short arm of No.1 was found to be a complete heterochromatin.oreover,the interstitial heterochromatin has observed on the long arm Nos.9,10,11.Silver-staining showed 7 Ag-NORs at Nos.10,11,13 chromosomes,but only one Ag-NORs appeared in the No.13.Based on the above data,Semilabeo prochilus might be specilized species in genus Semilabeo.
High-resolution late replication banding patterns were obtained on prometaphase chromosomes of Bufo bufo gargarizans and Bufo raddei by treating cultured lymphocytes with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU).The characteristic late replication regions on each banded chromosome of Bufo bufo gargarizans,which can be easily distinguished from other chromosomes,have been observed.Precise comparison between two species highresolution late replication banding patterns indicates that all chromosomes of two species are highly homologous.These results show that under the same culture condition and at the same time when BrdU were incorporated into DNA,it is possible to research chromosome homology among different species by comparing replication banding patterns.
Eighteen restriction endonucleases,ApaⅠ,BamHⅠ,BclⅠ,BglⅠ,BglⅡ,ClaⅠ,DraⅠ,EcoRⅠ,EcoRⅤ,HaeⅡ,HindⅢ,KpnⅠ,PstⅠ,PvuⅡ,SacⅠ,SalⅠ,SmaⅠ and XhoⅠwere used to investigate the mitochondrial DNA polymorphism of different goat breeds from Europe,Africa and China.Among the 33 individuals of 5 goat breeds analyzed in this paper,27 restriction morphs were detected which could be sorted into 8 haplotypes.The results indicated that the main haplotype of internal goat breeds was Ⅰ and Ⅲ,but Ⅳ for goat breeds of Europe and Africa.It was pointed out that the goat breeds analyzed might originate from two different maternal side.Meanwhile,the molecular dendrogram of different populations showed that the internal goat breeds had the close relationship,so did the European and African goat breeds.It was also verified that the Aferican goat breed,Nubian goat was once introduced into the European goat breed,Sanne goat.
This paper investigated and discussed the evolutionary relations of four histone molecules,H[2A],H[2B],H[3] and H[4] with the static accessibilities of protein amino acid residues as an index.The phylogenetic trees of H[2A],H[2B] and H[3] have been obtained.The results indicated that protein three-dimensional structure is more reliable as studing protein molecular evolution;in addition,H[4] is the most conservative protein in the four histone molecules composing nucleosome.The authors speculate upon that histone H[4],as compared with other histones,perhaps has the most important significance both in keeping chromosomal structure and function and in the origin of chromosome.