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1997年  第18卷  第1期

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研究论文
To date,8 species and 1 subspecies of the ant genus Pseudolasius Emery have been recorded in China.The status of 2 species,P.hummeli Stitz and P.sauteri Forel,which were described on female,remain to be confirmed.The subspecies P.binghami taivanae Forel awaits to be revised.A key based on worker major is prepared for the rest 6 species.P.silvestrii Wheeler is a new record species in China.A new species P.bidenticlypeus sp.n.is described.
This papers reported three new species of the genus Aphelopus Dalman from Mt.Fangjingshan,Guizhou Province,South-west of China.All the types were kept in Zhejiang Agricultural University.
Pelodiscus parviformis nov.sp.
Beaufortia intermedia Tang et Wang sp.nov.
The present paper gave the description of a new species of Anthomyia Meigen,1803 from western Liaoning.All the type specimens are deposited in the Chaoyang Health and Anti-epidemic Station of Liaoning Province.
This new species is easily distinguished from other species by its mesonotum with brown narrow scales,males distimere shape and appendage of claspette.Larvae:comb number and shape are similar to He.funeres;but the branches seta 4-7C and antennal hair 1-A,shape of the siphon and its index are different.Its abults and termialia of the male are simiar to H.indicas.
In Simao Region,coffee trees are attacked by Acalolepta cervinus (Hope) and Xylotrechus quadripes Chevr.,The eclosion peak of A.cervinus ranges from 18 to 30 of April,while the adults of X.quadripes chiefly emerge from October to December.The number ratio of mixed population varies with time.A.cervinus is dominant in it.The frequency of 1 borer in a tree is found to be the highest according to the frequency ditribution of the borer number in one tree.The distribution of the tree diameter where the borer tunnelled follows normal distributing,and the distributing center is 3.561 cm.The average tree height where the borer drilled is 37.072 cm,but the distribution of the drilled holes skews toward the left part of that point.These results are valuable to understanding the borers attacking mechanism and formulating the control schedule of these pests.
Coffee stem-borers 〔Acalolepta cervinus (Hope) and Xylotrechuse quadripes Chevr.〕are two major pests damaging coffee trees in Yunnan Province.This study shows that the spatial distribution of mixed population is of random distribution based on Taylors model,Poissons index and Morisitas index.Additionally,the empirical models for estimating the density and determining the sample size are developed in this study.These models might be of practical value.
The community component of soil animals and seasonal changes in four fragments of tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna were investigated.Seven samplings (50 cm×50 cm) in soil litter were examined from each of the fragment of tropical rain forest in dry and rainy season.The soil animals were collected by Tullgren methods.The results showed that the soil animal community were composed of 4 phylum 9 class 24-27 groups.Acarina and Collembola were preponderant groups,Hymenoptera,Coleoptera and Diptera were common groups.The coefficient of community of community components of soil animals of the primary forest in Menglun Nature Reserve and the forests of the three Holy Hills of Dai nationality were changed with season:in dry season,respectively as 0.52,0.68,0.60;in rainy season,as 0.72,0.82,0.81.The coefficient of community of the community components of soil animals of the four tropical forests in different season were 0.73,0.72,0.82,0.52 respectively.Diversity indexes (H) of the soil insects in the four forests were 0.60,0.91,0.71,0.75 respectively.The specific value (A/C) of Acarina and Collembola in the four rain forests were respectively as 1.14,5.24,2.52,2.38.The fragmentary rain forests of Holy Hills were higher than the primary rain forest in Menglun Nature Reserve.
47 species of plants were found in the diet of Black-necked Cranes wintering at Caohai Nature Reserve in southwest China,38 of which were natural plants,9 cultivated plants.Sedges (7 species) are the major food source,accunting for 76.54%,cultivated plants only 2.14%.Underground-tuber is a main fragment type consumed,accounting for 35.14%,most tubers from sedge family.Seeds of Rumes acetosa account for 27.54% total food items of seeds and flowers.The results of an analysis on variance for five main food plant species.suggested that main sources of variance are due to the month rather than duplicate slides.This variation in the diet is significant (F>5.87,df1=4,df2=70).
Early sound exposure effects on the characteristics of frequency tuning of inferior collicular (IC) neurons in Myotis chinensis,were examined with electrophysiological technique.The units tuned to exposing frequency in animals exposed at the first and third postnatal week showed stronger clustering compared to the control and those exposed at the fifth postnatal week.The tonotopic organizations and Q10-Db values of the units were also abnormal.This could be interpreted as the result of the over-representation of corresponding region in basilar membrane and then transmitting along the central auditory pathway.It meant the synaptic plasticity during postnatal development.Thus,we believed the critical changes of auditory development appeared to take place within the first 4 weeks after birth.
The effects of adenosine and its selective A[1]-receptor antagonist DPCPX and none-selective receptor antagonist theophilline on heart contractility and heart rate of Chinese toads were studied by heart perfusion.Adenosine could markedly inhibit heart contractility and heart rate with dose-dependent effect.The saturation effect on contractility showed up when the concentration of adenosine in perfusate was above 50 μmol/L,and arrhythmia occurred or heart-beating stopped when the adenosine concentration was above 100 μmol/L.No obvious effect was observed when the hearts were perfused with theophilline or DPCPX,but both the DPCPX and theophilline obviously antagnized adenosine when mixed with adenosine in the perfusate.The experiment proved that adenosine could also inhibit heart functions of amphibian and this inhibition could be antagonized by DPCPX and theophilline.The results indicated that the effects of adenosine on toads hearts might be mediated by A[1]-receptors.
The experiments were performed on 4-30 days old rabbits of either sex anaesthetized with urethane [100 mg/100 g(I.p)].The sympathetic nerves and depressor nerves of either necks were sectioned.The central end of vagus nerves (also scetioned) were stimulated via bipolar stainless steel electrodes.The blood presure in carotid artery was recorded by means of LMS-2A physiological recorder.The effects of intracerebroventricular injecting naloxone on the vagus pressor response were observed.The results showed that naloxone did not affect the pressor response in 4-15 days old rabbits (P>0.1);but it partially block the pressor value in rabbits of 20 days old or so (P>0.05);and the obvious blocking effects were observed in 25-30 days old rabbits (P<0.05,P<0.01).These suggested that the important time for the endogenous opiate like substance to be produced and its receptors system to develop was about 20 days after birth in rabbits and they began to modulate the vagus pressor response.
Effects of different hypothalamic peptides and neurotransmitter on gonadotropin and growth hormone secretion in 1-year common carp at midrecrudenceses indicated that TRH,L-DOPA,MT,GABA,LHRH-A and T[3] could significantly stimulate GtH secretion,but their affecting time and tone were different from each other.TRH and LHRH-A also have GH stimulatory actions.No effects have been found of L-DOPA,MT and GABA on serum GH secretion; T[3] has inhibitory effect on GH release.
The development of multicellular animals depends on cell-cell communication,and one of the mediators for the communication is cytokines.After fertilization,the development of mammalian early embryos during transition from maternal to zygotic genetic control requires the stimulation of external signal excreted from oviduct epithelial cells (OEC),otherwise,the developmental block occurs.We studied on the characterization and biological function of rabbit oviductal epithelial cells proteins (ROPs).There are three sets of ROPs with molecular weight of ROPs ranging from 44 kD to 135 kD,and their isoelectric points ranged from 4.5 to 5.9.Two sets of them were determined to be acid glycoproteins by treatment of WGA lectin sepharose and analysis of 2-D SDS-PAGE.After digestion with N- and O-glycosidase,the third set of the glycoproteins were degraded to become two or three spots with molecular weight about 30 kD or less,and their isoelectric points changed to about 5.5 and 5.6.Furthermore,the function of ROPs was analysed by using polyclonal antibody and antiserum against total ROPs (Arop-T) and against different molecular weight of ROP (Arop-Ⅰ,-Ⅱ and -Ⅲ).Arop-T and Arop-Ⅰ respectively completely arrest the development of mouse early embryos,and Arop-Ⅱ blocked the development of 75% mouse embryos,but Arop-Ⅲ almost cannot significantly arrest their preimplantation development.Immunoblotting analysis indicated that Arop-T and Arop-Ⅰ positively reacted on both ROP-68 and ROP-55,and that Arop-Ⅱ only positively reacted on ROP-68.The data conincide with our previous result of [125]Ⅰ-labelling ROPs in the zona pellucida of embryos.These results suggested that ROP-68 and ROP-55 were the oviductal cytokine inducing initiation of zygotic gene and realizing normal transition of maternal to zygotic control of early embryo development.
In this study,we examined effects of several proteinase inhibitors on implantation of mouse.We found that proteinase inhibitors soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI),ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and nitrophenol-p-guanidino benzoate (NPGB) could significantly inhibit mouse implantation when injected into uterine during pre-implantaion.We also found that NPGB could significantly inhibit attachment and outgrowth of blastocysts on the uterine epithelia cell monolayer when added into co-culture system,and STI and EACA only inhibited the outgrowth of blastocysts on the uterine epithelia cell monolayer.These results suggested that proteolytic activities were involved in implantation,some proteinases such as trypsin and plasminogen activator had important functions during trophoblast invasion.
Drosophila lini has been described as a new species from Taiwan,China by Bock and Wheeler in 1972.This paper deals with postmating reproductive isolation among 11 isofemale line strains of Drosophila lini collected from China,I.e.Taiwan (TAW 3146.1),Guangdong (Dinghu Shan DHS 315,DHS 401,DHS 410,DHS 501,and Nankun Shan NKS 9212,NKS 9231);Myanmar (Maymyo MMY 307,MMY 326,and Rangoon RGN 3,RGN 206).The results of the cross tests indicated that no postmating isolation was found between Chinese strains including Taiwan population and Guangdong two populations (Dinghu Shan and Nankun Shan).Drosophila lini from Guangdong Province is the same species as originally described from Taiwan.Cross experiments between strains from Myanmar,MMY 307 or MMY 326 females and RGN 3 males did not produce fertile F1 hybrids,but the reciprocal cross produced fertile F1 hybrid females and sterile F1 hybrid males.These results showed that between MMY and RGN strains postmating isolation is stronger than that between any other strains.Cross tests between Chinese and Myanmar strains,F1 hybrid females were fertile but F1 hybrid males were sterile,except for between DHS 410 and RGN 3 or RGN 206,in this cross test no fertile F1 hybrids were produced.Cross tests between NKS 9212 males and MMY 307 or MMY 326 females,no fertile F1 hybrids produced also,in reciprocal cross,F1 hybrid female were fertile but F1 hybrid males were sterile like that between RGN 3 and MMY 307 or MMY 326.We conclude that postmating isolation of Drosophila lini sbetween Chinese and Myanmar populations and within Myanmar populations (between MMY and RGN) have occurred,three units were clear,that are TAW,DHS,NKS populations;MMY population and RGN population.But we can not confirm they are sibling species,because postmating isolation machnism are not complete and genetic distances are smaller compared with that of other species of melanogaster group according to our unpublished data of mtDNA analysis.
The distribution,histology and histochemistry of sperm-storage glands of canary bird (Serinus canaria) were examined.The results showed that the sperm storage glands were restricted to a small area about 0.2 cm wide at the region of uterovaginal junction of the oviduct.The tubular glands were composed of a single layer of nonciliated columnar cells with basal nuclei arranging rather regularly.Histochemical studies showed that the gland cells exhibited positive PAS reactions and contained very small amount of glycogen and acid mucopolysaccharides.The lipid material was rather abundant in the gland cells.The gland cells showed strong AcP activity but no AlP activity.Differences in histology and histochmistry were found between the area of utero-vaginal junction and its adjacent regions,and there also existed the differences between the gland cells and the mucosal epithelium.
The ecological effects of Chinese sturgeon blocked below the Gezhouba Dam and effectiveness of protective measures for the fish were summarized in the paper.After the construction of the Gezhouba Dam,the reproductive stock structure of the sturgeon has been relatively stable.Certain river sections below the dam could meet the spawning demands,and the newly-formed spawning ground has been considered to play a vital role in maintenance of the species existence.Since the sturgeon commercial fishing was prohibited restrictly along the Yangtze River and the new spawning ground was protected in 1983,the resource of juvenile sturgeon at the estuary and the proportion of fully mature fish in stocks have increased remarkably,Although the Gezhouba Dam does not threaten the existence of the Chinese sturgeon,the direct or indirect impacts of the Three Gorges Dam on the sturgeon should be given high attention.