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1996年  第17卷  第2期

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研究论文
Mast cells in the intestinal mucosa (MMC),in the connective tissue of the intestinal submucosa (CTMC) and in the thymus medulla (TMMC) from four 1-month-old Large White pigs were observed under transmission electron microscopy.No evidence shows significant ultrastructural differences among porcine MMC.CTMC and TMMC.Porcine mast cells contained characteristic granules of uniform size,with a circular or oval outline and bounded by a unit membrane.The cytoplasmic granules contain amorphous granular material but the electron density of these matrix material varied from high to low.One or two lower dence cores were found in the center or eccenter of some granules.Based on electron density of the granule matrix,the granules could be classified into three types (Type Ⅰ,Ⅱand Ⅲ).The Type Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ granules contain high,less high and low electron dense amorphous granular matrix,respectively.
The winter resting site selection of Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was studied from October 20 to December 20,1991,at Dongfanghong Forestry Farm,Huzhong,Daxinganling Mountains.
In September,1994,we collected some loach specimens of the subfamily Nemacheilinae from Duan County of Guangxi,China.Some of the specimens have been recognized to represent a new species.It is described and discussed in the following.All type specimens are deposited in Fish Section,Kunming Institute of Zoology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
In this paper,two new species of Coenosia from Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces are described.The type specimens are respectively deposited in the Department of Biology of Shenyang Normal College and the Entomological Museum of Northwestern Agricultural University.
Notodontidea,a new genus and N.chui,a new species,from Tibet are described and figured.Its phylogeny and the relationship with some genera of Blennocampinae are also briefly discussed.The tribe Ceratulini Smith 1969 is synonymized with Phymatocerini Rohwer 1911 (=Ceratulini Smith 1969 syn.nov.).
Two new species,from Liaoning Province,Neozavrelia fengchengensis sp.n.And Smittia rostrata sp.n.Are described as male imagines.The type specimens are deposited in the Biology Department,Nankai University (BDN).
The nest spatial pattern and the colony caste composition of Polyrhachis vicina Roger were measured.1.Nests were regularly spaced from January to June or from September to December,randomly spaced in July and aggregated in August.2.In the cold season,nests were built at the place where could acquire solar radiation.In the warm season,most of nests were built in the shade.3.The population of the ant grew from the winter to the summer and descended gradually after the early autumn.Eggs,larvae,workers,queens and males existed yearly in the nest.Pupae appeared for 8 months from April to November and peaked in August.Gynes were present in the autumn.
The present paper deals with proturan diversi by analysis of 3835 specimens of 52 species from 87 soil samples which were collected from Yunnan province in 1992-1993.he Relative richness,Berger-Parkers index,Simpsonis index,Shannons index,and Evenness were estimated,and all the data were summarized in table 4.At the end of this paper,the results of the above analysis were compared with the data of Collembola from northern part of Thailand.The results of the present study may be summarized into three main points:1.Yunnan Province is the richest area for proturan diversity in China,even in the world.2.Baculentulus tienmushanensis is the dominant species in this area.3.Most proturan species in this area are in low-abundance.
Aquatic and aerial respiration in freely-diving soft-shelled turtle Trionyx sinensis were measured with refited Kalabukhov-Skvortsov respirometer.The results showed that,the soft-shelled turtle depended mainly on aerial respiration,aquatic oxygen consumption was only 2.68% of total oxygen consumption.No significant difference in oxygen consumption was measured at day and night.
The development of PMA in adult and juvenile of Silurus asotus was investigated by peritoneally injecting with different dosages of bovine serum albumin(BSA)or Indian ink to stimulate macrophage(mφ)activity.The mφ heterogeneity was demonstrated in lymphomyeloid tissue(LT)as well as in liver with histologic and cytochemic approaches,by which 5 types of mφs,I.e.Reticular/fibrous macrophage(RFmφ),shuttle macrophage(Smφ),round red macrophage(RRmφ),round yellow-red macrophage(RYRmφ)and pigment macrophage(PM),were identified.PM originated from RFmφs through the intermediate stages of Smφ,RRmφ and RYRmφ.The total amount of round macrophages(Rmφs)and PMA formation was closely related,PMA could not form if the amount of Rmφs was not high enough,and PMA had a tendency of migrating out of LT during the late experiment.The functions attributed to PMA were discussed.
The karyotype and Ag-NORs of Macropisthodon rudis from Kunming,Yunnan Province,were examined and characterized.It had a diploid number of 46 with 16 macro- and 30 micro-chromosomes.Among the 8 macrochromosomes,Nos.6 and 8 were submetacentric,and the others telocentric or subtelocentric.A secondary constriction was observed on the long arm of the second largest pair.The fourth largest pair were determined as the sex chromosomes.Z chromosome was large,and metacentric,while the W chromosome was two thirds as long as Z and submetacentric.Ag-NORs were localized on No.2,adhering to the secondary constriction.This result differs from a previous report of samples from Japan (Nakamura,1935).Implications of taxonomy and evolution of the results were also discussed.
The cytogenetic study on the karyotypes,Ag-NORs,C-banding and other features on five pelobatoid toad species in China had been made using the method of vapour fixation of mitosis metaphase of the marrow cells.The results showed that Megophrys jingdongensis have 2n=26(20M+4SM+2ST),5+8,SC and Ag-NORs localized on 6p[per] at which C-positive staining also.The centromeric C-bands dominated.M.palpebralispinosa 2n=26(20M+6SM),5+8,6q[inter] is distinct Ag-staining.Except for Nos.12,13,which has obvious terminal C-staining,all the chromosomes presented centromeric C-bands.Ophryphyne microstoma 2n=26(24M+2SM),6+7,SC and Ag-NORs are on 5p[inter].Specially there are quite developed C-bands on all the centromeric regions.Oreolalax lichuanensis 2n=26(22M+4SM),6+7,SC and Ag-NORs located on 6q[inter].Leptobrachium chapaensis 2n=26(22M+4SM),6+7,same location of Ag-NORs and C-bands with the former species it has,the varied chromosomes (26,27,28) occurred,but the exceed chromosomes are without C-staining.No heteromorphic chromosomes related to the sexuality were found in three species with both sexes.
Based on computing hydrophobic similarities between cytochrome molecules,this paper constructed the phylogenetic trees of cytochrome molecules and discussed their evolutionary relationship.The results indicated that the phylogenetic trees from protein molecular hydrophobic similarity and nonlinear three-dimensional structure can not only agree with those from other methods,but also can overcome the limitations of some methods at a degree,and get better results.The authors suggest that the method presented in this paper may be more effective to study the relationship between those distance proteins in evolution.
In this paper,we report on the cytogenetic detection of a triploid of Ctenophryngodon idellus by restriction endonuclease digestion and conventional banding techniques.Restriction enzymes Hae Ⅲ,Alu Ⅰ (recognizing four base sequences respectively) and Hind Ⅲ (recognizing a six base sequence) induced linear differentiations (G-bands).The isoschizomers Hpa Ⅱ and Map Ⅰ which recognize 4 base sequences resulted in modified C-bands differing from those produced by conventional C-banding.These findings clearly show that restriction endonucleases are capable of producing G-banding patterns in fish chromosomes and that restriction enzyme digestion can be very useful in the analysis of fish chromatin organizatin.