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1996年  第17卷  第1期

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研究论文
The adult external morphology (excluding the muscular system) of Geocoris pallidipennis (Costa) is studied and figured in this paper.Notes on some structures of Germalus sp.are included.The phylogenetic significances of these data are briefly discussed.
Transmission electron microscopy reveals:(1) At the non-ciliated regions of this organism,under the pellicles of both dorsal and ventral cortex,there are longitudinal microtubule (MT) layers arranged in regular intervals:3 MT per unit under dorsal pellicle,and 1 MT per unit under ventral pellicle,while under dorsal ridge pellicle,10-20 MT per unit.Still,under all these MT layers,there are deeper MTs and cortical mitochondria.(2) High electron-dense rods are present in the oral cortex.In cortex of ciliated regions,besides pellicles,basal bodies,and their related structures,there are membranelle bracket (formed by the connection of electron-dense bands with cylindrical fibrous matters) at the base of AZM membranelles.On both sides of ciliated basal bodies of cirral regions,there are surrounding fibrillar cirral baskets,formed by basal body brackets and MT ribbons under basal bodies.Still,beneath these brackets,there are again MT ribbons.Among these MTs under basal bodies of dorsal cilia,some of them extend near to the MT ribbons under pellicle ridges.(3) Within the macronucleus,many chromatin attached to nuclear membrane,and many regularly arranged nuclear pores scattered on other regions of the membrane.
White-fronted Shearwater (Puffinus leucomelas) breed on the islands near Qingdao,Shandong Province.This present paper deals with our study of the eggshell ultrastructure with scanning electron microscopy and the elements with TN-5500 energy spectrometer.The eggshell is mainly composed of 5 layers and Ca,P,K,Cl elements.The eggshell membrane layer can usually be divided into 2 layers,inner and outer membranes.Under the scanning electron microscopy,the inner surface of the membranc appears profuse mat fibres with some bud projections.They interweave into net and arrange in many layers.The mammilary cone is composed of petal and basal body.The bodies could be divided into mushroom and polygon forms.The polygon cone body has some petals projected from the core,and there is no petal on the mushroom.They arrange into different orientations,and the eggshell membrane be adhere on to the cones.The distance between the cones are different.The mammilary cone basal layer is a foundation of cone and denser than spongy layer.The spongy layer is the hardest part of the eggshell.It is composed sedimentary rock structure that the calcite deposit crystal into organic layers.There are many air pores in the spongy layer which open into the outer layer and the space between cones.The pore tube is composed of inner membrane and outer calcite tube.The embryo exchange air with the environment by these air pores.There are some pores mouths on the outer layer,and the surface of eggshell is rough with many projections.There is a protein membrane producted by oviduct to protect from bacterium and water loss.
According to the characters of morphology of 7 populations of Phrynocephalus at 7 areas in Xizang Autonomous Region,there are significantes differences between the population in Zetang area with other 6 populations.The population in Zetang is a new species which was named as Phrynocephalus zetangensis sp.nov.Wang,Zeng et Wu.The diagnoses of the new species are one nostril;four or five scales between nostriles;the number of dorsal scales less than the number of ventral scales;black color on the terminational tail in males and grey-white color on females.
In this paper,a new species of the genus Neodryinus R.C.L.Perkins is described from Baishanzu Mt.,Zhejiang Province,China.The type is deposited in the Department of Plant Protection,Zhejiang Agricultural University,Hangzhou,China.Neodryinus baishanzuensis sp.nov.The new species is related to Neodryinus diffusus Olmi,1987.but the new species differs from the latter mainly in:1)occipital carina absent (the latter occipital carina visible behind the ocelli and on the sides os the posterior ocelli);2)POL∶OOL=3.5∶2.2(the latter POL as long as OOL) ;3)scutellum and distal part of metanotum dull,granulated (the latter scutellum and metanotum shiny,punctate,without sculpture among punctures);4)fore wing distal part of radial vein as long as proximal part (the latter distal part of radial vein much longer than proximal part);5)the shape of male genitalia.Holotype♂:Baishanzu Mt.(27°7′N,119°2′E),Zhejiang Province,1993-Ⅷ-31,by Wu Hong,No.945217.
In Guangxi,Isoptera are widespread,and 133 species are nominated.This article deals with the ecogeography of termites in Guangxi,which includes natural woods,man-made woods and urban horticultural woods,We discovered that species composition,adaptability and effect to the environment of Isoptera differ in correspondence with different region,different height above sea level and different niche.Macrotermes barneyi Light,Odontotermes formosanus (Shirski),Microtermes dimorphus Tsai et Chen are adaptable-living population and major wood pest in the hill areas of middle subtropic,southern subtropic and northern tropic in Guangxi.Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki is the most harmful one among the harmful termites.Cryptotermes is distributed and does harm in the cities and towns of the South of the tropic of cancer in Guangxi and widespread especially in the southern-east coastal areas among them.
We studied the meterials by multiple regression analysis,the data were yearly rainfall,season rainfall,yearly average density of Meriones unguiculatus,monthly density of Apr.to May,Oct.to Nov.in the period 1981-1993 in the desert-grasslands in Erdosi.The conclusions were as the following:(1) Yearly rainfall especially in June to Aug.was a main factor affecting M.unguiculatus population density.(2) The spring density next year could be forecasted by the autumn density this year and the rainfall of four seasons.And also,the autumn density could be forecasted by the spring density and the rainfall of four seasons.
94 bird species under 27 families 11 orders (4 suborders) were found in the area around Longshan Forest Farm (30°55′N,19°54′E),Anji County,Zhejiang Pvovince from 1984 to 1988.Most of them,59 species,63% of all species,belong to emigratory birds:summer visitors,winter visitors and travellers.The former stay here for 201 days from April 7 to Oct.24,the latter,not including some willow warblers,for 247 days from September 12 to May 16.The Yellow-browed Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus) was observed almost all the year round except June.There were 83 bird species in plantation,59 species of them were recorded in 18 strip transects from 1986 to 1988.The average density of 25 resident bird species in all 4 seasons was 40.14 individuals per 10 ha.Combining with the data of autumn,winter and spring the average density of 20 winter visitors and travellers was 13.73 individuals per 10 ha.The average density of 14 summer visitors combining with the data of spring and summer was 4.83 individuals per 10 ha.According to the Important Value,the most important resident birds were Rufous-headed Crowtit (Paradoxornis webbianus),Great Tit (Parus major),Meadow Bunting (Emberiza cioides),Long-tailed Tit (Aegithalos caudatus),Hwamei (Garrulax canorus) and Chinese Bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis),the most important winter visitors and travellers were Oriental Tree Pipit (Anthus hodgsoni) and willow warblers,such as Dusky Willow Warbler (Phylloscops fuscatus),Yellow-browed Willow Warbler,Yellow-rumped Willow Warbler (P.proregulus) and Arctic Willow Warbler (P.borealis).The most important summer visitors were Paradise Flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi),Black Bulbul (Hypsipetes madagascariensis) and Dark Green White-eye (Zosterops japonica).
In Guanshan forests,Gansu Province,the koklas pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha) inhabits in places with an elevation of 1600-2000 m.Its propagation period starting from mid or late April lasts till early June each year.lts bowl-shaped nest is made on ground.The outer diameter of the nest is 250×270 mm and inner diameter 210×230 mm.The depth is 52 mm.Most of them are distributed mainly on sunny hillside.One nestful has usually 6-9 eggs.On the average,the size of each egg is 34.2×47.2 mm and weight 36.2 g,light brown in colour,the eggs bear lots of maroon spots.Analysis of its contains in crops proves that it is omnivorious,but the main food is plants.lts natural enemies include hawk,buzzard,snake,fox,wild cat and weasel etc.Experiment of incubation showed that 88.89% of the eggs can be hatched.By artificial domestication,we observed and studied the development of young birds.
During the years 1985 to 1991,we made investigations on the fauna and ecology of fleas on Mt.Gaoligong.A total of 47 species which belong to 23 genera of 5 families were obtained.According to the vegetation and elevation altitude above sea level,the Mt.Gaoligong was divided into 5 (in eastern slope) and 4 (in western slope) vertical zones.Among these zones,the highest number and diversity indexes of species of the fleas were in Ⅲ zones (Cool-temperate coniferous and broadleaf mixed forest,2500-3000 m in eastern slope and 2950-3100 m in western slope),and the lowest in Ⅳ and Ⅴ zones (alpine bush,that is 3100-3600 m in western slope,and 3500-4000 m in eastern slope).On the other hand,the fleas fauna of Mt.Gaolgong shows a high degree of endemicity (32 endemic species account to 70% of total species discovered).Based on the distribution of the main Palaearctic and Oriental and endemic alpine species,could be considered the typical species of Oriental region as main distribution below the altitude of 2800 m (in eastern slope) and 3000 m (in western slope),the opposites belong to Palaearctic;the zone in about 2800 m (Cool-temperate coniferous and broadleaf mixed forest) was the division line between the two regions of Mt.Gaoligong.
Unfertilized Kunming mouse oocytes obtained 14 h after hCG were cryopreserved employing four freezing protocols:1)SL,the oocytes were equilibrated in 0.5,1.0,1.5 mol/L 1,2-propanediol for 5,5 and 10 min at room temperature respectively;slow cooling at a rate of -0.3 ℃/min to -30 ℃.The frozen eggs were thawed in 37 ℃ water and moved into fresh medium after equilibration in 1.0 mol/L 1,2-propanediol -0.2 mol/L sucrose/PB1,0.5 mol/L 1,2-propanediol/PB1,0.2 mol/L sucrose/PB1 for 5 min,respectively,2)Q1,using a freezing medium of 3.5 mol/L DMSO in Hepes-HTF,and cooling ultrarapidly by simply plunging into liquid nitrogen.The frozen eggs were thawed in 37℃ water and moved into fresh medium after equilibration in 0.5 mol/L sucrose,0.25 mol/L sucrose Hepes-HTF for 5 min respectively;3)R-FVM,vitrifying oocytes in 90% VS1 and thawed in 4℃ bath and moved into fresh medium after equilibration in 50% VS1 and 25% VS1 for 10 min,respectively;4)MVM,vitrifying oocytes in Massips vitrification solution and thawing in 20℃ bath.The frozen eggs equilibration in 1 mol/L sucrose for 10 min and washed 3 times by PBS.The results showed that the survival rate and fertilization rate of SL and R-FVM were similar to those of the control,but significant higher than those of Q1 and MVM (P<0.05).Our results suggested that:1) Both slow cooling and vitrification can preseve Kunming mouse oocytes well;2)The vitrification solution containing both permeating and nonpermeating cryoprotectants (such as VS1) was suitable for Kunming mouse oocyte vitrification.
The histochemistry and the ultrastructure of STH cells (somatotropin cells) of the adenohypophysis in Ctenopharyngodon idellus have been studied.STH cells lie in the central region and the back region of the meso-adenohypophysis.The results showed that STH cells are acidophilic cells,orange G positive and PAS-AB negative during both PMB (PAS-MB) dyeing and APG (AB-PAS-OG) dyeing;STH cells show high electron density,their rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in general appears as well-developed parallel lamellae around the nucleus,STH cells have many granules in small size under the electron microscope.
The present investigation was compared on nature of pharmacodynamics and toxicology from Scolopendra mojiangica Zhang et Chi and Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L.Koch.The experimental contents include anticonvulsive tests,effects on the growth of fungi and bacteria in vitro,acute toxicity tests,effects on animal weight and hemoglobin,chromosomal aberration tests and so on.The results showed that all of these properties of two centipedes were basically similar and this theoretically proved the possibility that Mojiang centipede can replace the Shaoji centipede on medicine.The acute toxicities and genetic toxicities of two centipedes were low,so that these two centipedes can be used larger dosage in clinical treatment.
The Karyotypes,C-banding and Ag-NORs of four Anuran paa species in China.Have been investigated here.The results are as follows:Paa liui 2n=64T,all the centromeric regions have C-positive staining and Ag-NORs localized on 20q[inter].Paa boulengeri and P.chayuensis both from Yunnan and P.quadrana from mount Taihang in Henan Province have 2n=26 consisted of SM or M and 5+8 formulae commonly,but the count and sequence of SM between them showed some dissimilarities.For the former two there are same 6p[per] Ag-NORs locations,but more differences are found in C-bands:some terminal and interstitial C-bands presented in P.Chayuensis,but light staining in centromeric regions.And in the latter--Paa quadrana there are more dense interstitial and terminal C-bands in some pairs except in centromeric ones that are less developed.No heteromorphic sex chromosomes occurred in four species studied.Finally the comparison and analysis of karyotypes and banding pattern and evolution way between species and geographical populations are discussed.
Restriction maps of ribosomal DNA repetypes of the three putative slow lorises species,Nycticebus coucang,N.intermedius and N.pygmaeus,were constructed with 15 restriction endonucleases and 28S,18S rDNA probes cloned from human.The site numbers mapped on the non-transcribed spacers for N.coucang,N.intermedius,and N.pygmaeus,were 23,24,and 24 respectively.N.coucang differs from N.intermidius at 13 sites,and 14 sites from N.pygmaeus.There are only one site difference between N.intermedius and N.pygmaeus.The sequence divergence between N.coucang and N.intermedius was estimated as 12.65%,and that between the former and N.pygmaeus was 14.24%.However,N.intermedius and N.pygmaeus have only 0.71% sequence divergence.Integrating information from morphology,karyotype,mitochondrial DNA and ribosomal DNA variation,we refer to the hypothesis that there are two valid species in the genus Nycticebus,namely,N.coucang and N.pygmaeus while N.intermedius may be at the level of semispecies of N.pygmaeus at the most.The giant difference between N.coucang and N.pygmaeus implies that the former has strongly diverged from the latter.