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1995年  第16卷  第3期

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研究论文
The Chinese species of coreid genus Cletus St?l are reviewed.Details of diasal portion of vesica are presented here which are proved to be diagnostic at specific level.
In the present paper,four species of the genus Hepialus are described as new.All the type specimens were collected in the snow mountains and deposited in Kunming Institute of Zoology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The present paper reports three new species of the genus Goniogryllus Chopard from Sichuan Province and Jiangxi Province,China.All type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology,Shaanxi Normal University.
The present paper reports 5 species of Cydnidae from Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region,China.A new species:Sehirus xinjiangensis sp.nov.,and 4 new Chinese records:Byrsinus penicillatus E.Wagner,B.minor E.Wagner,Aethus laeviceps Kerzhner and Sehirus parens Mulsant et Rey,are included.All the specimens are deposited in Biological Department of Inner Mongolia Teachers University.
This paper deals with the faunal charateristics of the Acridoidea in Guangxi Autonomous Region.The analysis is based on more than 30000 specimens of Acridoidea collected by Institute of Biology,Guangxi Academy of Sciences and Institute of Biology,Guangxi Academy of Sciences and Institute of Botany during 1962-1993.And 142 species belonging to 6 families,26 subfamilies and 71 genera are included.Composition of the Acridiodea fauna is discussed in this paper.On the basis of the results,64.7% of the Acridoidea fauna in Guangxi are Oriental species .Only a part of them are widely-distributed species (10.1%) and Palaearctic species (2.2%).However,the endemic species has a larger ratio reaching 23.0%.
Morphogenesis of the marine ciliate,Euplotes charon was investigeted with protargol impregnation method.The results demonstrate that the main events of the cortical pattern during the morphogenetic procedure are very similar to those of other known Euplotes species.The general procedure is:1) along with the reorgnization of the macronucleus,the opisthes oral primordium appears de novo under the pellicle posterior to the buccal field,from which the AZM,PM and one of frontal cirrus will be derived;2) two groups of FVT cirral anlagen each with 5 streaks occur de novo,which will be differentiated separately to the frontoventral and transverse cirri in both dividing parts.Different from that of most other hypotrichs,the process of development of the anlagen according to an order from left to right;3) anlagen of dorsal kineties appear within the old structure,where the caudal cirri come from the right-most two anlagen.All the morphogenetic characteristics mentioned here or those described previously by other authors have agreed with the systematic arrangement that euplotids with related genera might be devided into several independent taxa within the order Hypotrichida.
The nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) was measured with Kalabukov-Skvortsov respirometer within thermal neutral zone (30℃) by a subcutanueous injection of noradrenaline at different seasons,and some biochemical characteristics of cellular respiration were measured at the same time.The maximum nonshivering thermogenesis (NST[max]) was 2.57±0.21 in winter and 2.21±0.12mlO[2]/g·h in summer,which were 75.9% and 61.2% of the value expected from NST[max]=30W[-0.45] (Heldmaier,1971),respectively,The NST[max] was.lower than that of small mammals in the temperate zone,higher than that of which in the tropics,and its seasonal variation was significant (P<0.001).The weight of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was not only different significantly between winter (0.623±0.015 g) and summer (0.532±0.08 g),but also its thermogenic activities were differntial obviously.The total and mitochondrial protein,the activity of cytochrome C oxidase and α-glycero-phosphate oxidse of BAT were obviously hiher in winter than in summer,But these biochemical indexes in the liver maintained a constant in both seasons.It was obvious that the NST[max] and the activity of BAT showed acclimatization to the seasons,which was responsible for the geographical distributions of the tree shrew,Its thermoregulatory patterns,therefore,appeared to be a transitive type from the tropic to the temperate zone.
In order to determine the law of annual cycle of the structure of thyroid in cobra,we chose 84 mature healthy male Naja naja Atra bought from Suichang,Zhejiang Province,divided them in 12 grougps,and pulled out their thyroid during the period of 9:00-11:00 a.m.on around the 20th days of every month to be studying materials.The thyroid pulled out were cut in sections according to common practice,The largest section received H.E.stain.The changing of struction of thyroid was observed and compared every month.The total number of thyroid follicle,pinosome in follicle cavity and columnar epitheliem in each specimen was counted respectively.Those numbers were taken as indexes,Their laws of annual cycle were counted by way of circular distribution statistics.The respective relationship between cobras activity grade and total number of follicle,columnar epithelium and pinosome was counted by way of χ[2] tendency test.The correlation coefficient between the total number of follicle,columnar epithelium and pinosome was counted by way of linear-correlation.The results came out as follows:(1) The total numbers of follicle,pinosome and columnar epithelium all showed the annual cycle change was similar to the single-peak curve,The appearance of peak figure of follicle number was on June 17,The 95% reliability section of peak figure of whole cobra was from May 6 to July 28.The peak figure of pinosome number was on May 30,The 95% reliability section of peak figure of whole cobra was from May 17 to June 13.The peak figure of columnar epithelium numberon May 27.The 95% reliability section of peak figure of whole cobra was from May 15 to June 9.The peak figure of the total numbers of follicle,scolumnar epithelium and pinosome in cobra thyroid appeared later than that of the plasma TSH concentration,but earlier than that of the plasma T[3].T[4] concentration.This indicated that cobra plasma TSH is the promoter of the structural change in the thyroid of cobra and that the synthesis and secretion of T[3],T[4] results from the maturity of follicle epithelium.2) There were very significant positive correlation between the total numbers of follice,columnar epithelium and pinosome in cobra thyroid,and the total numbers of follicle,columnar epithelium and pinosome,which link obviously with the activity grade of cobra.(3) During hibernation (the third ten days of November to the third ten days of February the next year),the follicle epithelium of thyroid in cobra presented the form of 2-6 layers,with a single layer at the active stage (in the other months).
Effects of Cd[2+] on gonadotropin secretion of pituitary from common carp were studied by using the in vitro perfusion system.It was found that Cd[2+] can stimulated gonadotropin secretion directly,inhibited sGnRH-A stimulating gonadotropin secretion significantly.The results suggest that one of the toxic mechanisms of Cd[2+] on pituitary gonadotrop might be Cd[2+]-disturbed Ca[2+] action.
Several basic mammal neurotoxins and one crustacean neurotoxin were purified from Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensi Karsch) venoms which were collected in different areas of China including Provinces,Henan (Xichuan),Shangdong (Yidu),Hunan (Changde) and Sichuan (Chengdu).The procedures of purification involved in Sephadex G-50,Sp-Sephadex C-25 and IEF.The isoelectric points,molecular weights and toxicities of the obtained fractions were assayed and compared.The comparison indicated that the neurotoxins from different locations were very similar in respect to their liquid chromatographies,but also in respect to their isoelectric points,molecular weights,toxicities and crystallization.Despite some differences,it seemed that these neurotoxins from different locations widely distributed in China are corresponding each other.
This is a report of the comparative study of the chromosomes in B[95-8] cell transformed by EBV with that of the normal Sagninus oedipus studied by Hsu T.C.For the normal,the diploid chromosomes number is 2n=46 and karyotype consists of three groups:A,2 pairs submetacentric and 2 pairs of micrometacentric;B,11 pairs of submetacentric;C,7 pairs of telocentric.One large metacentric X-chromosome and a microtelocentric Y-chromosome can be differentiated easily.For the B[95-8] cell which has been transformed through carrying EBV 2n=47,the A and C group of the karyotype appeared as the same as the normal Sagninus oeaipus.But for the B group,there are 3 chromosomes without pairing (one large metacentric;one large submetacentric and one microtelocentric) with the exception of No.10 submetacentric.However,the lymphocyte of #FKRhinopitheus bieti,Rhimopitheus rotellanae,Hylobates hoolock,Presbytis francoisi,Presbytis phayrei crepusculus as well as Presbytis nemaeus transformed by EBV the diploid chromosome number,G-,C-banding and Ag-NORs are all consistent with that of their normal ones.
The karyotype of Martes foina intermedia were studied by C-banding and silver staining.The number of diploid chromosome is 38.Autosomes consist of 7 pairs of metacentrics,2 pairs of submetacentrics,9 pairs of subacrocentrics.Chromosome No.18 has a secondary constriction near by centromere on the long arm.X chromosome is a metacentrics and of a size between that of chromosome No.3 and No.4,and the Y,the smallest acrocentric.The centromeric distribution of heterochromatin has been demonstrated in most of chromosomes.In some of chromosome centromericregions are stained slightly C-bands.Moreover,the constitutive heterochromatin of centromere region of chromosome No.1 is apparently disappeared.The whole short arm of chromosome No.9 is found to be a complete heterochromatin one.The secondary constriction region of chromosome No.18 is with heterochromatin.The uncommon distribution of interstitial heterochromatin has observed on the long arm of X chromosome.Y chromosome is completely C-band positive.There is only one pair of Ag-NORs in the silver-stained karyotype,it is located at the secondary constriction of chromosom No.18.These specific distribution of C-bands and relative to karyotype evolution of Martes foina intermedia were discussed.
On the basis of the character that varivance(V) is equal to mean (m) in Poisson distribution,a new aggregation index is presented in this paper,I.e L index (L =V/m+V).The index L can be used for testing insects population spatial pattern;and also the relationship between L and V is usually linear,according to the property of L and V,the linear regression formula is presented by author,that is L -V model (L =a+Bv).When the L -V is linear,the estimated parameters values of a and b can offer different information concerning the spatial pattern of insect population.On the basis of the L -V model,the author developed a set of math formula for insects population sampling technique.
Conservation biology is partly a response to a biological crisis,partly a crystallization of older disciplines drawn apart by specialization and rapid advances in the biological sciences.It is a new stage in the application of sciences to conservation problems,addresses the biology of genes,species,and ecosystems that are perturbed,either directly or indirectly,by human activities or other agents.Its goal is to provide principles and tools for preserving biological diversity,which is a mission-oriented comprising both pure and applied sciences.The new systematics,ecology,biogeography and population biology are important fundament of the theory of conservation biology.The major study contents of biology conservation are:survey and sustainable utilizing the resources of biology;preserve habitat;population viability analysis (PAV) and maintaining genetic diversity;employing biotechnology in kex situ conservation as well as rational political planning for economy development and biodiversity conservation,etc.Conservation biology promises to help us decide what facts of nature to preserve,how to avoid extinctions,and how to restore ecological damage,to find a pattern bridging science and management.As any other young science,the principles of conservation biology are still rudimentary and have far to go.This paper is a summary of the concept,postulates and contents of conservation biology,as well as the strategies and actions of biodiversity protection and general picture of conservation biology in China.