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1994年  第15卷  第zk期

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论文
Pylogeny of the sinipercine fishes, their relationships with some fossils and their systematic positon were studied in this paper. Consisting of 2 sister groups, the sinipercine fishes were grouped as genera- Coreoperca and siniperca, while the genus Coreosiniperca was unwarranted for its type being a member in Siniperca, Having many special characters, Tungtingichthys was denied as the ancestor of the sinipercine fishes, however, Siniperca wusiangensis was taken as one member in Siniperca and some fossil percoids found in Japan han close relationship with sinipercine fishes. All characters of the sinipercine fishes are not concordant with that in Serranidae or Percichthyidae which leads to the conclusion that either the sinipercine fishes are not in Percichthydae, or the defining characters of Percichthyidae listed Gosline (1966) are wrong. But at present, we can only put the sinipercine fishes in Percichthyidae.
The cyprinid genus Spinibarbus consists of 5 species. They form into a monophyly by three synapomorphies.Based on 19 external and skeletal characters, the most parsimonious cladogram is constructed for Spinbarbus fishes. Sister groups A (S. hollandi) and B-E (S.sinensis+S.denticulatus+S.yunnanensis+S.polylepis) represent the first phyletic branching within the genus Spinbarbus. The phyletic division of second sister groups B(S.sinensis)and C-E(S.denticulatus+S.yunnanensis+S.polylepis) is pupposed to be resulted from the upheaval of Ynnan-Guizhou Plateau and the subsequent drainages' division. The phyletic division of third sister groups C(S.denticulatus) and D-E(S.yunanensis + S.polylepis) is supposed to be resulted from the environmental differentiation between Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the lowlands of middle and lower Pearl and Yuanjiang Rivers.
Evidence is provided to support the hypothesis that the taxa Pseudogyrinocheilus, Semilabeo, and Discolabeo form a monphyly in which Semilabeo and Discolabeo are sister groups, and both together consitute the sister group of Pseudogyrinocheilus. On the basis of phylogenetic relationgship of Pseudogyrinocheilus to others, it is proposed that the taxon Pseudogyrinocheilus be a valid genus. In addition, comments are made on importance of some features used in the traditional taxonomy of the subfamily Labeoninae.
The sinocyclocheiline fishes are endemic group distributing in Ynnan-Guizhou Plateau and northern Guangxi Provice, China. Phylogenetic relationgships of the sinocyclocheiline fisher are studied with cladistic analysis and Barbodes is selected as the out-group. The result indicates that the sinocyclocheiline fishes are a monopheletic group which consists of two major phyletic lines, and the varition of the frontal, the scale number and among 19 species of the sinocyclocheiline fishes are analysed on the information of external characters and skeleton characters with clustering methods, which are identical with the result of cladistic analysis. Sinocyclocheilus can be divided two subgenera: Snocyclocheilus Fang s. str. and Gibbibarbus Dai.
Most species of the family Catostomidae are distrivuted in North America and so far only one species Myxocyprinus asiaticus has been reported in China. There is a necessity of studying the development of pharyngeal dentition of larval and juvenile in M. asiaticus as a research of the special subject.At the earliest stage of pharyngeal dentition in larval, catostomids and cyprinids are similar both in their external features and arrangments. Thereafter, they develop into two different ontogenetic type.In catostomids, it is more special that four rows of teeth coexist similtaneously, but among them only one row of functional teeth in the process of development is ankylosed at the pharyngeal bone. Mary plesiomorphies it has, such as the shape of whole pharyngeal teeth is similar to the ceratobranchials of the foour front gill arches and the ankylosed teeth preserve the original form of gill rakers etc. It is concluded, that the catostomids is more primitive in phylogeny of suborder Cyprinoidei.
Based on the materials collected from November, 1988 to December, 1993 and the deposited specimens, the present paper primarily deals with the interspecific differentiations between Yunnanilus pleurotaenia and Yunnanilus chui in Fuxian Lake, referring to their morphological characters, living spaces, diets, age and growth, breeding babits. The investigation reveals that the interspecific differentions in morphology of two Yunnanilus species appera mainly in SL/body depth, head length/eye diameter, length of caudal peduncle/ depth of caudal peduncle, mouth situation, length of maxillary barbel, number of branched dorsal fin rays. The loach Ynnanilus pleurotaenia lives mainly in the streams flowing into or out the lake as well as their outlets and inlets, feeding mainly on Gammarus sp. and chironomid larvae, having a higher growth rate and absolute fecundity than Yunnanilus chui. The loach Yunnanilus chui lives mainly in the vegetations of vascular hydrophytes occurring in the coastal area of the lake, feeding mainly on zooplanktons, having a lower growth rate and absolute fecundity than Y. pleurotaenia. Two Yunnanillus species share the following common features in breeding: eggs are fairly small, the relative fecundities very high and females greatly dominant in their populations. These features can ensuure that their populations have potentially high abilities in breeding.
The distribution of the loach Paracobitis variegatus is confined to upper Yangze, ZHuanghe and Nanpanjiang drainages. The nember of branched dorsal fin rays, morphology of anterior nostril, colour pattern of head and the length of maxillary barbel indicate that it has differentiated into two subspecies. Both subspecies are isolated geographically: P.variegatus variegatus restricted to the upper Yangze and the upper Huanghe Rivers, and P.variegatus longidorsalis, new subspecies, to the upper Nanpanjiang River. The subspecific differentiation is supposed to correlated to the sharp uplift of the eastern Yunnan Plateau during late Pleistocene. The taxonomic status of Nemachilus berezowskii Gunther, 1896 and Nemacheilus oxygnathus Regan, 1908 are also discussed and they are considered to be the synonyms of P.variegatus variegatus.
Shandong inland waters belong to three main river systems, i.e. Yellow River, Huai River and Mai River. As known at present on the basis of previous and present surveus 115species and subspecies occur in Shandong and they belong to the Family cyprinidae or accounting for 60% of the total. Among the total 12 subfamilies of Cyprinidae, 10 subfamilies occur in , and hte subfamilies Labeoninae and Schizothoracinae are absent in Shandong. Among the 10 subfamilies, 9 subfamilies are the East Asia elements and 1 subfamilies (with only 1 relict species ) is the South Asia elements. The fish fauna of Shandong belongs to the East China (Plain) Region. Shandong is located in lower reaches of Yellow River (belonging to Wwangho-ZHaiho Subregion). The fishes of Cyprinidae are similar with that of Jiangsu which is located in the lower reaches of Yangtze River(belonging to Kiang Huai Subregion). Compared to that of Liao River (belonging to Liao River Subregion), excepts for a few cold water fishes, the fishes of Cyprinidae are also similar. the subregions are divided according to the elements of genera and species except for the Cyprinidae fishes.
Adult pharyngeal teeth in Cirrhinus molitorella are compressed in anterior and posterior direction and formed secondary grinding surface with wear. Based on the observations of the teeth by SEM, the morphological diversification of the teeth in C.molitorella were described in this paper. The larval and juvenile teeth are changed from conical to adult teeth through seven stages. And comparisons are made between developments of the teeth in C.molitorella and Mylopharyngodon piceus, of which the development of the teeth is described in the previous paper (Nakajjima et al.).
Based on the specimens and ecological data collected during the past years, the present paper describes the general biological characters of the fish Spinibarbus yunnanensis. S. yunnanensis is distinguished from related species by the numbers of lateral line scales, scales below lateral line, predorsal scales and vertebrae. It prefers to live in the mid-lower zone of coastal water. The adults feed mainly on macrophytes and the larvae on filamentous algae. The growth rate of S.yunnanensis is higher than its related species. The parents breed from May to August, laying eggs on sandy and rocky substrate where the water flows slowly. The absolute fecundities of individuals 274.0-400.0mm SL are 8800-13632 oocytes. The surveying data also indicate that s.yunenensis was extinct in Yilong Lake and endangered in Yangzonghai Lake and Xingyun Lake. Now only a small population of S.yunnanensis survives in Fuxian Lake.
The salangid fish Neosalanx taihuensis has become into a major export fish pfodect in Yunnan. In recent years, the accretion of Cultrichthys erythropterus population was supposed to be the major factor that had cause the salangid fish yield to drop down. The present investigation has revealed that the individuals of C. erythropterus smaller than 100mm SL feed mainly on Cladocera; individuals of 100-130mm SL feed mainly on Cladocera and shrimps (each accounting for about half of the food amout); individuals over 130mm SL feed mainly on shrimps as well as aquatic insects and little fishes (the aslangid fish has occurred only for 2 times, occurring frequency being 0.45%). Based on these results, it is concluded that C. erythropterus shows meager direct interference, and little indirect interference, on the salangid fish. These discoveries from the investigation have been included into the fishery management of Dianchi Lake.
From July 1991 to 1992, Match and April 1993, 773 speciemens of Sarcocheilichthys sinensis sinensis were collected from Wuchang to Honghe reach of Changjiang River for reproductive biological analysis. The results are as follows: Spawning season lasts from lasts from April to July, but most fo fish spawn in May. Fertilized eggs are drifting in the running water. The diameters of fertilized eggs are between 1.60-2.00mm, and the diameters of egg membranes are between 3.70-4.70mm. 1 year-old fish can reach sexual maturity. Spawning population consists of age 1 and 2 mainly, and sex ratio is 1:1. According to asynchronous development of oocytes and spermatocytes of distribution of egg diameter, S.sinensis sinensis is regard as a definite batch apawner. The individual absolute fecundity varies from 1040 to 5580, its relation to body length may be described by F=2.5.58X10¯²X L2.5402.
The Karyotypes analysed were obtained from kidney cells of five marine fishes by means of injection of colchicine, hypotonic treatment and air-dry technique.The karyptype of Liza haematocheila on first pair of chromosomes. Similar karyotypes were described for 5 other species of the genus by Cataudella et all. (1974) and Choudhury(1979).Platycephalus indicus has a diploi chromosome number of 48, consisting of 2 pairs of metacentric, 3 pairs of submetacentric, 1 pair of subtelocentric and 18 pairs of telocentric chromosomes.The karyotypes of two species in Order of Pleuronectiformes, Paralichthys olivaceus and Kareius bicoloratus, were analysed. They have the same diploid chromosome number of 48, and similar karyotypes (48T). The secondary constrictions were observed on the fist pair of chromosomes in the two species. The diploid number of P. olivaceus from Yantai, China (2n=48)is different from that of the same species from Yamaguchi, Japan (2n=46), This may be one of the polymorphism in chromosomes.The diploid number of Fugu pseudommus is 44, and the karyotype consists of 12 metacentric, 8 submetacentric and 24 telocentric chromosomes.The cytogenetic causes of speciation in fishes were also discussed in the paper.
By use of starch gel electrophoresis, the patterns of expression of nine isozymic systems (LDH,MDH,ADH,IDH, GTDH, IDDH,G2PDH,SOD,EST) were investigated in six differentiated adult tissues(brain, eye,muscle, heart, liver and kidney) and the early parently exhibit a tissue specific expression. During the early develomental stages, LDH,IDH, IDDH, SOD and G3PDH isozymes are present but exhibit no evident develomental change. The above results provide basic information for the population genetic structure and population evolution of Megalobrama skolkovii.
The proteinases responsible for the degradation of yolk proteins in the eggs of Cyprinus carpio were studied. It was proofed that were endogenous proteinases in the oocytes. The optimum pH of the proteinases to the yolk proteins was about 3. The activities of the proteinases could be inhibited by E-64 and pepstatin, which suggested the proteinases belonged to the cysteine peoteinase family and aspartic proteinase family. The proteinases could hydrolyze the bovine hemoglobin at pH4. There was one major kind of protein in the yolk proteins, which was estimated as 110 kDa by SDS-PAGE.This rpotein was the major endosubstrate of the proteinases.
A population of one same species could adapt changing environmental facts of its own,including food sources, breeding sites, microclimate of habitat, which will undoubtedly cause transformation of behavior, habits, external and internal characterstics, until form diversified population. Some of these populations would arise to a subdivision into subspecies or even independent species.Megophrys lateralis was widely distributed in many countries in southeastern Asia. Certainly, there are a lot of the isolates of this species in Indo-Malaya region. In the course of the origin, of course, must relate to the similarity between populations, As indicated by the dim clustering analysis, we found the transfomation of characters are continuous, in three populations of M.lateralis, none of the characteristic reached subspecies level. However, M. glandulosa which is not a valid species. Because of using unstable characters, such as fronto-parietal separated from squamosal by prootica, unmeasurable characteristics, for example, swelling of posterior of temporal fold and tubercles in size etc. We propose that all of utilize unmeasured characters should determine in size and to calculate ratio wiht a length of part of bogy, In such case, one can avoid the fault result.The similarity between populations of M. lateralis show that the population of Jingdong is similar to that of Tengchun, both are a little different from that of Gongshan. Even though there are some little transformations, yet these disparities are not a sige for a level of species, such as the tubercles and posterior of temporal fold in size, which increase accompanying with body size.
The fire bellied toad genus, Bombina, with seven species, which spread throughout various Eurasiatic areas. There are five species of the genus distributed in China. The taxonomy and systematics of Bombina was quite confusing. The phylogenetic relationship within this genus had nor been fully worked out, which, to some extent, should be due to the lack of data for the five species in China. This work takes out to investigate phylogenetic and classifacation of chinese menbers of the genus.Thirteen osteological, external morphological and chromosomal characters were analyzed A hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships of the four species is presented. Two groups(clades)are present within the genus: one contains the species B.fortinuptialis. B. maxima and B. microdeladigitora; B. orientalis share the other clade. In the first clade, B. fortinuptialis and B. microdeladigitora are closely related. Subspecific status fo fortinuptialis was suggested, because its specific status was weakly supported by morphological and karyological evidences. After comparing 11 external measurements, we foud apparent varieties in different populations of B.maxima. No geographic varieties of other species were found.Several authors studied relationships of Bombina with other discoglossid groups, and some separated it to erect different families. We summarized the former morphological, karyological, as well as molecular evidences, and considered it's still valid to retain bombina under governing of Discoglossidae.Finally, we interpreted speciation of Bombina by correlating it to paleo-geological evidence.
Torrentophryne aspinia is a new kind of toads discovered in China recently, it lives in the forest floor in West Yunnan, the most important things for this kind of species is that they have a kind of torrent-adapted tadpoles which have abdominal suckers and can adhere to the surfaces of rocks in moving waters. In this article, we described the forming procedures of abdominal suker and some breeding behaviors, habitats and habits. After comparing with those of other toads, it is confirmed that Torrentophryne shoul be a new valid genus, it is derived from ancestor toads because of adaptation to the torrent habitats, by the forming of torrent-adapted organ-abdominal sucker in th early development
C-banding pattern and Ag-NORs of three species of Amolops, A.granulosus, A.jinjiangensis and A.viridimaculatus were examined and presented. Karyptypes of three species had 2n-26 chromosomes consisting of 5 large and 8 small piars, are similar in many other species of the family Ranidae. They differ from each other both in chromosome shapes and the positions of secondary constrictions. C-banding technique revealed that the number of heterochromatic sections was high in chromosome of three examined species, especially in chromosomes of A.granulosus. It is the same case for all three species examined here. that Ag-NORs were lovalized in the short arms of pair No.6, in coincidence with secondary constrictions.The males of A.granulosus are unique in having an extra-chromosome in Amolops, which is tentatively recognized as Y chromosome. This Y chromosome resembles pair No.7 in chromosome shape, but differs from all the other chromosome in having large amount of heteroshromatin. Karyological characteristics strongly support the assignment of A. jinjiangensis as a distinct species.Evolutionary and taxonomic implictations of the finding were also discussed.
The chromosomes of three odor frogs, Luetuosae-group of Rana were analyzed by conventional, as well as C-banding and silver staining techniques. The three species here examined all had 26-chromosome karyotypes encompassing 5 large and 8 small homologous pairs. Differences among them were found in gross shapes of chromosomes and positions of secondary constrictions. Generally speaking, karyotypes of R.andersonii and R.grahami resembled each other, while the karyotype of R.tiannanensis differen from the former two in several respects.Analyses of karyotypes by C-banding technique indicated that, centromeric areas of every chromosome and interstitial parts of some chromosomes of each species were hetero-chromatinized, and differences of distribution of heterochromatin were found among species. In early metaphase plates of R.andersonii, much more heterochromatinized areas were observed, and when it reached late metaphase, the numbers of heterochromatin sections in each chromosome pair reduced to a limited level, e.g. centromeres and a few intersititial parts.The active nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were localized in long arms of pair No. 10, in connection with secondary constrictions for R.andersonii and R.grahami as in other odor frogs previously reported,but in the long arm of pair No. 6 for R. tiannanensis. The cytogenetic and taxonomic implications of the findings were discussed based on comparisons with each other, and with published leterature.
Two hemorrhagic toxins(HaHT-1 and HaHT-2) from the venom of Deinagkistrodon acutus from Hunan have been purified using Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, QAE-Sephadex A-50 and CM-Sephadex C-25 ion exchange chromatography. They were homogeneous judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. The both consist of single polypeptide chain with similar molecular weight of 23.5kDa. HaHT-1 is composed of 213 amino acid residues and HaHT-2 consists of 207 amino acid residues, respectively. As determined by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing, their isoelectric points are 5.6 for HaHT-1 and 5.2 for HaHT-2, respectively. They were strong hemorrhagic toxins with proteolytic activity. EDTA and cysteine could inhibit both hemorrhagic and proteolytic activity but trypsin had no effect, suggesting that the toxins are metalloproteins and disulfide bridges which had contribution to the consormation of activities. Analyses for metals indicated that zinc and calcium were present in both toxins with roughly 0.5 mol zinc and 1 mol calcium per 1 mol protein.Circular dichroism (CD) was used to examine the conformation of HaHT-1 and HaHT-2. In the far CD spectrum, it was showed a wide negative peak at 217 nm for HAHT-1 and a negative peak at 2.8 nm with a shoulder peak at 217 nm for HaHT-2. Although there is some indication of a high β-sheet content, it is possible that the aromatic region contributed to this complex spectrum for HaHT-2. The secondary structure contents calculated by the method of Chen and Yang showed that HaHT-1 was found to be 36.9%α-helix, 35.5%β-sheet% and 27.6% randon corl and HaHT-2 to be 23.4%α-helix, 31.3%β-sheet% and 45.3% randon coil. The effects of pH, temperature and EDTA on CD spectra of the hemorrhagins could be found that the conformation of HaHT-1 and HaHT-2 have some changes. As they were calculated by the method of Chen and Yang, the contents of α-helix were decreased while that randon coil were increased.
Allozymes of eleven species of Megophryinae in China were exmined electrophoretically to investigate genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships. Fourteen enzymes, presumptively coded by 24 lovi were detected to be variable.Gene frequencies of each population at each locus were presented. The commonly used measure of genetic diversity, the average heterozygosity (H) were calculated based on gene frequencies. The results indicated that Megophryinae had a high level of genetic diversity in amphibians, an average H of 0.18, ranging from 0.058 to 0.28. Nei's (1978)genetic distances (Nei's D) were calculated for all possible population pairs. A dedrogram of 13 populations represnenting 11 species, 3 genera of Megophryinae were derived and presented by using UPGMA, based on Nei's D. The assignment of O phryophryne as a distinct genus were supported by an average Nei's D of 1.4067 which separated O. microstoma from all other populations. Subdivision of Brachytarsophrys from Megophrys was not supported by this study. Within Megophrys, three groups were recognized: 1. m. lateralis, M. giganticus and M. longipes; 2. M palpebralespineosa, M. boettgeri and M. parva; 3. M. minor and M. kuatunensis. Three populations of M. omeimontis were closely related and share a clade independent form all other Megophrys, and B feae as well