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1994年  第15卷  第4期

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研究论文
Spinibarbus fishes occur in the rivers from the south of Qinling Mountains to the north of Yuanjiang River,including Taiwan and Hainan islands.About the generic status and the identification of species,different opinions have been proposed.So far,15 specific nomenclatures have been reported,being placed in really different genera such as Puntius,Barbodes,Spinibarbichthys,Spinibarbus,Mystacoleucus and Mytsya.Most of these nomenclatures have been recognized to be synonyms.In order to determine the taxonomic status and to clarify the nomenclative confusions for the spinibarbid fishes,we carefully examined 104 spinibarbid specimens and some skeletal specimens deposited in Kunming Institute of Zoology.Comparisons indicate that spinibarbid fishes are distinguished from all other genera of the subfamily Barbinae by following characters:the last supraneural disappeared from above the last predorsal vertebra;the 4th neural spine well developed,being almost as tall as neural complex;a well developed precumbent spine presents in front of dorsal fin origin.These characters further confirm the proposal that spinibarbid fishes represent a special lineage within subfamily Barbinae and should be given a generic status.Through the revision,5 specific nomenclatures are recognized to be valid to the genus Spinibarbus,and S.elongatus is treated for the first time as a synonym of S.hollandi.
This paper describes five new species and a new record of the genus Atkinsoniella Distant,which were collected by a general survey of forest insects from Yunnan Province,China.The type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica.
After examining 259 specimens (165 males,94 females) of Blood Pheasant (genus Ithaginis) from China,the authors opinion is that genus Ithaginis should only include 1 species.This species should consist of 9 subspecies and 1 intermediate type.
In winters,six different structures of gonadotrops (GTH cells) of meso- adenohypophysis in Clarias lazera can be found.GTH[1] cells filled with secretory granules and with few granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER);GTH[2] cells with some secretory granules;the GER with large cisternae;GTH[3] cells with few secretory granules and with abundant large GER cisternae;GTH[4] cells without secretory granules but with abundant vesicular GER;GTH[5] cells are small and contain very small GER;GTH[6] cells with a deformed nucleus.The various structure of GTH cells in winters makes difference in the breeding season.In this paper,the structure characterizations of TSH cells (thyrotrops) and STH cells (somatotrops) were described.The structure changes and its funtions in three secretory cells were also discussed.
This paper presents the results of a study on the nest site selection of the Daurian Partridge Perdix dauuricae in Ningwu County of Shanxi Province from 1991 to 1993.Totally 60 nests have been found in the field work,with most of them were located in the farmland and shruby areas.About 67% of the nests built in the sunny southeastern slope and southwestern slope.The comparisons of the 12 habitat variables which may affect nesting success between the nest sites and random chosen non-nest sites within 100 m from the nest show that,5 variables influenced the nest site selection of the Daurian Partridge are (in decreasing order of importance):the amount of leaf litter,the width of field boundary,the amount of dead grass,the width of shrub and the height of the bank at the base of the field boundary.The results of discriminant analysis indicate that,the amount of leaf litter and the amount of dead grass are the two most important variables distinct the nest sites and non-nest sites.In conclusion,the Daurian Partridge prefer to select the site in the farmland and shruby areas which have more leaf litter and dead grass combined with relative higher vegetation coverage to build its nest.
Community structures of the ticks parasitic on 9 species of small mammals obtained from Hainan were studied.Ixodes granulatus parasitized on all the hosts.Rate of I.granulatus on Dremomys pernyi was the highest (76.92 percent).Haemaphysalis aponommoides and H.doenitze commonly parasitized on Rattus coxingi,R.niviventer and R.rattus and the rate of infestation was relativeley high (more than 50 per.).he diversity indices of R.niviventer and Neophylomys hainanensis were lower.
This paper deals with the comparison on karyotypes between red goral (Naemorhedus cranbrooki) and goral (Naemorhedus goral griseus).Their chromosomes were studied by several banding techniques (G-,C- and Ag-staining).These results are given as below:(1) The diploid number of red goral (N.cranbrooki) is 56.All of the chromosomes are acrocentrics.The X is a large one,and the Y,the smallest.The goral (N.g.griseus) has a dipolid number of 2n=54.The karyotype are consisted of 26 pairs of acrocentrics and one pair of submetacentric.The X chromosome is also a large acrocentric,and the Y chromosome,the smallest acrocentric.Therefor,the existence of submetacentric elements makes the remarkable difference between the chromosomal structures of red goral and goral.But autosomal arm number (N.F) are all 54 for both gorals.(2) The G-banding patterns of the 3q in goral are similar to that of the No.3 in red goral,and the G-banding patterns of the 3p in goral are similar to that of the No.27 in red goral.Therefore,it is suggested that a Robertsonian translocation could have happened during the karyotype evolution of gorals.(3) The centromeric distribution of heterochromatin has been demonstrated in all chromosomes of red goral and goral,while the whole Y chromosome is C-band positive.The C-bands of chromosomes are also similar for both gorals.(4) Ag-NORs have been observed at the terminal of 3 pairs of acrocentrics in red goral and goral,which could be No.1,2 and 4 larger acrocentrics according to their size and morphology.These results suggest a close relationship between red goral (N.cranbrooki) and goral (N.g.griseus).
Eleven restriction endonucleases were employed to assay the variation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) among 9 domestic fowls (three of each Chahua breed,Nixi breed and Dali yangbi yellow breed) and 1 red jungle fowl.About 40 fragments were scored in each individual averagely.Three mtDNA variants were discovered,namely,StuⅠ-B,ScaⅠ-B and EcoRⅠ-B.The patterns of StuⅠ-B and ScaⅠ-B were reported firstly,and only occurred in the red jungle fowl.EcoRⅠ-B was specialized in Dali Yangbi breed.In the other hand,Chahua and Nixi breeds share the identical restriction patterns.Based on the shared fragments,the genetic distances among breeds which have different mtDNA haplotypes were calculated.The distance between the red jungle fowl and Chahua-Nixi is 0.32%,that between the red jungle fowl and Dali Yangbi yellow fowl is 0.48%,These results imply that the red jungle fowl experimented may be out of a special subpopulation,which deserves more attention as well as protection.
This paper studies the phenotype characteristics and mechanism of formation of W[aR84h] 89b10,eye-variegation strain of Drosophila melanogaster.The study shows the essential characteristics of position effect,that is,chromosome recombination,thermo-reaction and gene expression that is related to the sepation position of heterochromation.In addition to that,the study also shows that 89b10 is the regulator gene-W,which is between 4 and 5 down the gene-W.The newly found regulator gene is named R(W)[W].The formation of the phenotype of the eye-variegation is due to the augmentation of a protein involved in the heterochromotion at the separation of In(1)4D,5B,which causes the inactivation of the gene-R(W)[W] nearby,therefore,this irregular expression leads to the irregular expression of gene-W.
Genomic DNA was prepared from Schistosoma mansoni(OZ.A) adult and cercaria,S.mansoni adult (NMRI),S.japonicum adult,and was hybridized to three [32]p-labelled probes pSM HCR5,pSM HCR4,pSM 889 after cleavage by restriction endonuclease BamHⅠ,The resulting hybridization banding patterns with pSM HCR4 are significantly different between cercaria and adult of S.mansoni (OZ.A) from 1.6 kb to 2.8 kb except there is a same size 3.0 kb major band.There is a minor band in pSM HCR4 pattern for S.mansoni,which can be identified from S.mansoni adult (OZ.A).Moreover,S.japonicum adult have no 3.0 kb major band in pSM HCR5 pattern,which can be distinguished from S.mansoni.The results showed that there was a drastic change of genomic DNA from cercaria to adult,which maybe related to the adaptation of S.mansoni to extremely different living environment in their life-cycle,and also provides more immediate evidence of existence of dynamic changes in the course of development in S.mansoni.
Infant Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into several groups and received daily injection of saline,naloxone (10,50,100 or 200 μg/100 g b.w) or Met-enkephalin (MEK 20 μg/100 g b.w) respectively from postnatal days 1-14.They were trained in the appetitive discrimination learning (ADL) at the age of 16 days,then in the bright discrimination learning of Y-maze (BDL) at 30 days of age.On days 45,the content of brain protein of the rats was examined.Results showed that the dose of 50 μg/100 g b.w of naloxone significantly inhibited learning behavior in ADL and BDL and lowerd the content of brain protein of the pups.The dose of 200 μg/100 g b.w.of naloxone had the opposite effects.No singnificant effects were seen for the other doses of naloxone.Whereas,MEK inhibited learning of the infant rats in BDL.Results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may influence some behavior during postnatal brain development of infant rats.
The acute,subchronic and chronic toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to Daphnia magna were investigated under renewal condition with a hardness of 80-100 mg/L (as CaCO[3]).At 25-26℃,the first instar (less than 24 h old) D.magna was used in the acute and chronic toxicity tests.The duration of the chronic test was 20 d.At 19-20℃,the subchronic exposure was lasted 19 d for less than 24 h old D.magna while it was lasted 16 d for 4 d old D.magna.The 24 and 48 h EC[50] for D.magna were 489 and 245 μg/L,respectively.Depended on the population of the first brood,the LOEC and NOEC were 160 and 80 μg/L in the chronic test,respectively,which were similar to those in 19 d subchronic test (200 and 100 μg/L).The results indicated that the population of the first brood was a sensitive endpoint.