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1993年  第14卷  第1期

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研究论文
This report described the fine structure of spermatozoa of Tibetan macaque,a species endemic to China.In the study,transmission electron microscope (TEM),scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscope (LM) were employed.The sperm total length was 79.96±0.29 μm,the head of the sperm oval was flat and 5.97±0.05 μm long.The acrosome was large and surround the anterior three-fourths of the nuclear surface.There was a short neck with a centriole and a 11.98±0.05 μm long midpiece consisting of approximately 44 gyres of mitochonndria arranged in an helix.The main piece of the sperm is 62.01±0.32 μm long.The size of the sperm is larger than those of any other species in Macaca (P<0.001).
As a results of this research,it is now known that three species of the genus Paracobitis distribute in Erhai area,Yunnan,China,I.e.P.anguillioides Zhu et Wang from a spring near Yousuo,Eryuan County,P.erhaiensis Zhu et Cao from Wase,a small town in eastern bank of Erhai Lake and P.acuticephala sp.nov.from Haixihai Lake near Niujie,Eryuan County.Based on comparisons all Chinese Paracobitis specties,it is found that the three species belly of Erhai area is covered by scales and other Chinese Paracobitis species belly is naked.Otherwise,the three species distribution is so closed.These clue may imply that these three species is a natural group,they were derived from one ancestor.The differences of morphological characters among them are the result of species differentiation and the proofs for distinguishing them.Type specimens of new species are preserved in Department of Bilology,Yunnan University.
A ciliate to be very image of Stylonychia mytilus in body shape and cortical morphology was found in marsh water of Morshan Town in Heilongjiang Province.Only the macronucleus of the present species is nodulated,this feature is contrary to the traditional diagnosis of the genus Stylonychia.However,the feature that the replication bands are two and appear at both ends in S phase of the macronucleus is still similar to that of Stylonychia.Moreover,in view of the fact that different shaped macronucleus may exist in the same genus of other hypotrichs (Borror,1983),the authors determined to set down it as a new species in the genus Stylonychia rather than establish new genus for it,and name it Stylonychia nodulinucleata sp.nov.Thus the traditional diagnosis on the macronuclear shape of the genus must be revised.
This paper describes five new species of the genus Iassus from Guizhou Province,China.The type specimens are deposited in Guizhou Agricultural College.
Since November,1989 a study about the reproduction of Middle slow Loris (Nycticebus intermedius) in captivity has been made.All the adults were wildly born.During the summer and fall they were housed in a cage.The size of the cage was 10 square meters and the height of it was 3.5 meters.During the winter and spring they were housed in a room.So far 14 infants were born.The paper presents the main results of the study.Nycticebus intermedius was a highly seasonal breeder.Estrous cycle was from July to September every year.The duration of the cycle was about 49.67 days (SD=1.25).During the estrous cycle,the vaginae of females became swelling and reddening;the testes of males became bigger and the scrotal sacs acquired reticulated pigmentation,glans penises became purple red.During non-breeding season glans penises were pink.Seven copulatory bouts were observed,they occurred during 20:10-22:50,and lasted from 30 seconds to 2 minutes 57 seconds.In six of them,the females suspended themselves upside down with their two hands and two feet beneath the top of cage,the males mounted the females dorsoventrally.Only one copulatory bout was that a female suspended itself with two hands and a foot,a male mounted it ventra-ventrally.Gestation length was about 188 days.All parturition occurred in sprin.Litter size was two.The body weight of newborn babies were about 17.57 g (SD=2.06).Lactation length was about 108 days (SD=4.12).
Joretian subspecies of Koklass pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha joretiana) only occupies in Mt.Da-Bie of eastern China.We had been studied it from 1984 to 1990.The birds are found in broadleaf forests at an elevation of 850-1400 m,and in the patches of secondary woods in the cultivated areas at an elevation of 200-370 m.The birds roost on trees at night and the cocks crow in the morning.They are vegetarian,and feed mainly on the tender parts of various plants.There are 5-8 eggs in a full clutch on the ground nest built by female birds in April.Only females incubate and the incubation period is 25 days.According to our census,the population density of the birds in the observing area is 12.8 km2 in breeding period and 28.7 km2 in winter.
The effects of human activity on community structure of small mammals in a wet evergreen broadleave forest of Ailao mountain has been described.The results show that:(1)Three habitats or biotopes can be divided in this area,namely,the primary forest,the secondary forest which had been primary forest and destructed by human activity as well as the grassland which had been primary forest and destructed severely by human activity.(2)There are 16 species in the primary forest and the capture rate is 9.81%,of which,Apodemus draco and Neotetracus sinensis are the dominant species.Six species in the secondary forest and the capture rate is 1.18% and A.draco and Rattus niviventer are the dominant species.Five species in the grassland and the rate is 0.92% and the dominant species is Micromys minutus.(3)Average density and biomass is 36.05 ha and 917.18 g/ha in the primary forest,5.30 ha and 205.03 g/ha in the secondary forest as well as 4.35 ha and 107.15 g/ha in the grassland.Therefore,the conclusion should be:The community composition,number and relative abundance of small mammal species have been changed.The increase of disturbed intensity of forest leads to the declines of the species diversity,moreover,the larger of the disturbance intensity,the smaller of the density and biomass.
The aggregation indices and Taylors power law are used to test the spatial distribution of the third generation larvae of leaf miner in the tobacco fields.The results are as follows:The distribution pattern of larvae is aggregative (negative binomial distribution).The aggregation dose not change with the densities of population of leaf miner.The larvae are mainly aggregated distribution on the first stratification (four leaves) beneath tobacco plant;aggregated or random distribution on the second stratification;random distribution on the third stratification.Otherwise,the frequency of occurrence are used to estimate population densities of leaf miner.By comparing calculating population densities of the theoretical curves from Wilsons model and Gerrards model with practical one,it is found that the relationship between them is significant fit.But sampling estimating error of Gerrards model is less than that of Wilsons.Meanwhile,models of optimization sampling and sequential sampling are obtained by using Taylors parameters as follows:N=1.68857(t/D)2X-0.90661 and T(n)=(D/1.68857)-1.10301.n-0.10301
The effects on embryonic development of the Chinese mitten-handed (Eriocheir sinensis) ar water temperature which included six sets of 15℃,18℃,23℃,26℃,29℃ and ambient temperature were studied by light microscopic from December,1987 to May,1988.The results showed briefly in the following:1.The water temperature ranges from 9.6±3.6℃ to 23℃ were suitable for embryonic development of the Chinese mitten-handed crab,beyound this water temperature ranges,it would be dangerous or lethal to the crabs.2.The optimum water temperature for embryonic development of the Chinese mitten-handed crab was 18-23℃.3.The early development of the embryo was quite sensitive to water temperature,the higher water temperature was,the less time embryonic development spent,but embryonic concordant rate was gradually decreased.4.Alternating water temperature was found out to benefit for embryonic development of the crab.
From January,1987 to January,1988,the ecological aspects of Ergasilus hemibagri (Cyclopoida),which is parasitic on the gill of the fish--Mystus macropterus in the Fujiang River of Hechuan County,China,have been studied.The conclusions can be drawn as following:the parasite can reproduce above 16℃ and it possesses high reproduction and efficiently infective power about 25℃;the infections of the parasite varied seasonally as some factors changed,such as temperature,water quality,current velocity,the reproduction and infective power of the parasite etc;the frequency distribution of the parasite is negative binomial distribution,which is fit,when tested with chi square test;is is probable that the host produces resistance against the parasite when it is infected by the parasite,and the resistance increases with the increase of the number of infection and intensity;in natural environment,the factors influencing the population growth of the parasite are density of independent factors and immunological responses generated by the host.
A method of collect venom from the spider (Selenocosmia huwena) was reported.The biological activities of the crude venom were analyzed.The LD[50] of the venom in mice and cockroach were 1.16 mg/kg and 300 μg/g respectively.It has enzyme activities of hyaluronidase,alkaline phosphatase,protease.and DNAse,but no choline esterase and phospholipase A were found in it.In the isolated toad sciatic nerve-sartorius preparation the venom at a concentration of 3 mg/mL was found to block the neuromuscular transmission irreversibly.In mice,the crude venom in dosage of 5 mg/kg caused respiratory failure in about 20 seconds.
This paper reports the analysis of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Esterase isoenzyme (EST) during Embryonic development of Rana chensinensis and optical density scanning.The results show that there are different type LDH isoenzymes in each stages,LDH[1] keeps higher activity during whole developing process,and the relative activities of LDH[2],LDH[3] and LDH[5] are lower.The relative activities of LDH[4] gradually increases from Tail bud stage.In addition,LDH[1],LDH[3],LDH[4] subbands specificity in the embryonic development has been discovered.The EST are observed from Mouth open stage.It is clear these ontogenetic changes are reflected the action of the differential genes (Ldh-A & Ldh-B).
The karyotypes of 17 species of birds belonging to Timallinae were studied from bone marrow cells with colchicine-hypotonic air-drying technique,The results were given as follows.Quantitative methods have been employed for comparing the karyotypes of the related species with in a familial group.Tentative conclusion have been drawn regarding intra-and interfamilial chromosomal relationships.Macrochromosome pericentic inversion and deficiency of microchromosomes are found to play a significant role in karyotype evolution in this family.
With DGD embedment sectioning and embedment-free technique,We found that nuclear matrix also could be demonstrated in the nucleus of typical dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae after a series of selective extractions and Dnase treatment.The morphology of the nuclear matrix is similar to that of higher eukaryotic cells,and consisting a non-chromatin filamentous network and granular structures.However,it is noteworthy that,with DGD technique,even in the cells fixed directly without any prior extractions and treatments,a similar dense network of filaments could also be demonstrated in the nucleoplasma.It has long been known that,in typical dineflagellate nucleus,almost all of the DNA concentrate in the permanently condensed chromosomes.Therefore,at least most of the filaments are not chromatin fibrils,but nuclear matrix filaments.Besides,when the formation of sulfide links among protein molecules was protected by adding 1% mercaptoethol into the extraction buffer,the nuclear matrix also could be demonstrated.This fact rules out the possiblity that the nuclear matrix is an artifact produced by the formation of difulfide links among protein molecules.These facts above imply that the nuclear matrix in typical dineflagellate is a real physiological nuclear structure,rather than artifact produced during extractions and treatments.
The karyotypes of 14 species of Charadriiform birds were studied from bone marrow cells with colchicine-hypotonic air drying technique.The results were given as folloes.The variation of diploid numbers of Charadriiform birds were in a large range:from B.oedicnemus,2n=40 to G.gallinage,2n=98.The differentiation would be caused by two chromosome rearrangements:in Charadriidae a series centric fusions of microchromosomes caused decreasing of dipolid numbers,and in Scolopacidae a series centric fissions of macrochromosomes caused increasing of diploid numbers.