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1992年  第13卷  第3期

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研究论文
This paper reported the results of observing daily growth increments in the otoliths (sagitta) of the glass eels collected from river estuary of Liaodong Peninsula and elvers artificially reared.The mean diameters of otoliths of the glass eels end elvers were linear correlation to their body length.The mean daily growth increment in the otoliths of 12 glass eels was 146.3.From the daily increments,it was guessed that their spawning period could be 11-12 month.The observation results proved that there were transition zones (mark ring) in the otoliths of elvers lived in different conditions from estuary to fresh water.
The present paper is devoted to description of the morphological characters during the early growth stages of Sepiidae,Loliginidae,Idiosepiidae and Octopodidae,in comparison with adults.Comparisons between the early growth stages of neritic and oceanic cephalopods indicate that the morphological characters of neritic cephalopods have less changed in the early growth stages than oceanic cephalopods.This fact suggests that the oceanic cephalopods should be more primitive than neritic cephalopods.
The ultrastructure of the wax gland in the male second instar larvae of the white-wax insect,Ericerus pela Chavannes,is investigated.The wax gland is composed of six to eight cells:one main cell,three to five accessory cells,two ductule cells and a secreting canal system.The secreting canal system consists of a duct,a ductuli,an end apparatus,a reservoir,subcuticular spaces and collecting canals.The wax gland cells are of general organization characteristics of integumentary glands.They are characterised by a very large quantity of smooth endoplasmic reticulum which forms dense zones throughout the cytoplasm and by a lot of mitochondria which often gathers in certain area.Near the collecting canals the dictyosomes are especially numerous.In different physiological states the regularly morphological modification of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria takes place during a day.Unlike that of general integumentary glands,the end apparatus of this wax gland has several cavities which are formed with the ductule terminate branched.The end apparatus is of only a fibrillar layer instead of two layers.The fibrillar is composed of fibrils.Its diameter is larger than usual.All of these characters make secretory products go out easily.
Chrysolophus,an endemic genus of Chinese pheasants,has two species.They are C.pictus and C.amherstiae,considered as 2nd category of animals for protection under Chinas game laws.They are mainly distributing in the central and western parts of China.The present paper deals with our studies of the ultrastructural eggshell of the two species.There has been so far no works dealing with the ultrastructural eggshell of both C.pictus and C.amherstiae in China or the rest of the world.The microstructures of avian eggshell are composed chiefly of cuticle,outer shell membrane,mammilary core,cone layer,palisade layer,basal cap,pore channel and pore mouth etc.The results of our observation of the above ultrastructural eggshell of both C.pictus and C.amherstiae may be summaried as follows.
The present paper deals with six new species of the genus Goniogryllus from China.The type specimens are kept in the Institute of Plant Protection,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The new species are briefly diagnosed as follows.
This paper peports a result for taxonomic research of subspecies on Orange-bellied Himalayan squirrel (Dremomys lokriah) from southwest China.At the end of the classification of subspecies of Dremomys lokriah,notes in 1965,J.C.Moore and G.H.H.Tate reported only a subspcies (I.e.D.l.lokriah) from south and southwest Tibet in China.Late,Cai Guiquan and Zhang Naizhi (1980) described a new subspecies,D.l.motuoensis,from the Motuo region in southeast Tibet,and Feng Zuojian et al.,(1980,1986) reported a new distribution of D.l.garonum in southeast Tibet.But they believed that the specimens from Zayul,southeast Tibet (belong to D.l.subflaviventris) was a synonym of D.l.garonum (belong to D.l.macmillani by Ellerman 1965),and the specimens from Nielamu,southern Tibet was believed as D.l.lokriah.After comparison and analysis carefully,we believe that D.l.subflaviventris from southeast Tibet and Mt.Gaoligong border between Burma and Yunnan,China was a wild subspecies.It is distinguished from D.l.lokriah by its darker,more brown less chraceous orange dorsal pelage,by shorter Palatal,and by distributive region segregated,and from D.l.macmillani by lacking a middorsal balcklish stripe,and specimens collected from Nielamu,southern Tibet is a new subspecies.So there are 7 subspecies of Dremomys lokriah were described,and four of these subspecies distributed over China.In addition,one form needs to be studied in the future in China.
In the present paper,three species of the genus Hepialus are described as new.The types of 3 new species were collected from the snow mountains of alpine meadow.Three species of the larvae can be parasitized by a kind of fungi,Cordyceps,to form the Chinese insect herb,a precious ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine.The types of 3 new species are kept in the Kunming Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica,Kunming,China.
In the present paper,a new genus and two new species of Grasshoppers are described as new from Wuling mountain.All type specimens are deposited in the Kunming Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica.
In this paper,we have dealt with the genus Macrima,9 species are included,one of them described as new to science.The type specimen is kept in the Insect Collections of the Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica.
Winter diet composition,selectivity and percentage of utilization of moose (Alces alces) was studied with the microhistological analysis technique of feces in combination with field browse surveys from 1987-1988 in Heihe.Results showed that 31 species (genera) of plants were used in winter;Salix spp.,Corylus spp.,Betula spp.,Pinus koraiensis,Populus davidiana and Tilia amurensis were staples.The percentages of these items in diet were 19.9%,18.0%,16.7%,14.9%,7.3% and 6.7% respectively.Moose had positive selectivities for Populus davidiana,Salix spp.,Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis,and negative selectivities for Corylus spp.,Betula spp.And Alnus sibirica.They were arranged in order of preference as follows:Populus davidiana>Salix spp.>Pinus koraiensis>Tilia amurensis>Corylus spp.>Betula spp.>Alnus sibirica.The percentage of utilization for Salix spp.was the highest (32.1%) and for Betula spp.Was the lowest (12.1%).
The relation between B chromosomes and the vitality of Drosophila albomicans were analysed.The results showed that B chromosomes of D.albomicans serves two regulated functions during growth and development proecss.Their characters showed that B chromosomes exist inkaryotype of isofemale line as unitary shape,1B or 2Bs,that stimulate the action of growth and incresase the vitality on the one hand,and multiple B chromosomes exist to form the karyotype polymorphism resulted in restrictive action for growth and development on the other hand.
In this paper,we used frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in the tadpoles as the indicator to study the mutagenicity of wastewater of Mingtong River and various water quality treated with SLDS.The tadpoles were exposed in various water sample for 7 days.Smears of the cardiac blood samples were prepared.The frequencies of micronucleated erythrocytes in two control groups were 4.40‰ and 4.68‰,respectively.The frequency of tadpole micronucleated erythocytes induced by wastewater from Mingtong River was 17.01‰.There was significant difference in comparison with control groups.
Optics microscope,scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the spermatogensis and spermatoleosis as well as ultrastructure of spermatozoon in the Chinese freshwater catfish,Leiocassis longirostris.