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1989年  第10卷  第3期

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研究论文
The biochemical substances in protoscolex of Echinococcus granulosus were investigated systematically by histochemical techniques.It was showed that glycogen,RNA,DNA,protein bound α-amino groups,tyrosine,tryptophan,histidine,alkaline protein,acid mucopolysaccharides,collagenous fibers,reticular fibers,activities of AKP,ACP and ATPase were detected at various levels in protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus.The content of glycogen was rich in parenchymal tissue of larva.RNA and DNA were mainly located in cytoplasm and cell nucleus,respectively.The content of protein bound α-amino groups,tyrosine,tryptophan,histidine and alkaline protein were very rich in tegument and small parenchymal cells.Both the activities of AKP and ATPase were very strong in tegument of protoscoleces.The hooks were contained heavy acid mucopolysaccharides and reticular fiber element and moderate contents of protein bound tyrosine,tryptophan and histidine.The collagenous fibers were noly presented in parenchymal tissue of larva.Some content of PAS positive material,RNA,DNA,protein bound α-amino groups,tyrosine,tryptophan and histidine,alkaline protein,acid mucopolysaccharides,collagenous and reticular fiber elcment,AKP,ACP and ATPase were found in calcareous corpuscles of protoscoleces.The physiological significance of biochemical substances presented in protoscoleces obtaincd from sheep was discussed briefly.
Two fossil birds collected from Shanwang Formation,Middle Miocene (about fifteen million years ago),of Linqu,Shandong are here described.One of them was nuearthed in 1982 (Linqu Paleon.Mus.No.82001),and includes chiefly the prints of anterior and posterior legs;the second one was obtained in 1984 (No.840170),and includes only a broken skull and its bill,both specimens are represented by a positive and a negative sides.These two fossil birds,though found from same locality and formation,belong obviously to different group in view of their characters.
The venom from the East-Asia scorpion (Buthus marttensii Karsch) was isolated and purified by Sephadex G-50 and sp-Sephadex G-25 chromatography one after another.Different mammal neurotoxins BmK Ⅰ-Ⅷ and crustacea neurotoxin were obtained.The results of electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gel showed that they are homogencous on the whole.Except the Bmk Ⅳ,their isoelectric points are range from 7.9 to 9.1.The Pi of BmK Ⅳ is pH 5.3.The molecular weights determined by SDS PAGE are range between 6000 and 8000.The amino acid compositions showed that BmK Ⅰ-Ⅷ have a higher content of Asp and 1/2 Cys and lack Met but CT has a higher content of Gly and lacks Ile and Val. The comparison of N-terminal partial scquences of 15 amino acid residuces between BmK Ⅳ and BmK Ⅲ showed the homology more than 60%.The far UV CD Spectrum of several neurotoxins indicate that a mixture of β-pleatad sheet and aperiodic structure is the main feature of the secondary structure of them.
This paper deals with the comparison of chromosomes of 3 subspecies of Tupaia belangeri chinensis,T.b.tonquinia and T.b.yaoshanensis.All of them are distributed in the southwestern China.Their chromosomes were studed by several banding techniques (G-,C- and Ag-staining),and a technique for simultaneous exhibiting chromosome replication patterns and late replicating Y chromosome. (1) The diploid number of 3 subspecies of tree shrews (T.belangeri) are 62.There are 3 pairs of metacentrics (Nos.1-3),two large and one small;three pairs of submetacentrics (Nos.4-6),one larger than the other two;one small pair of acrocentric with a distinct secondary constriction near the middle of the long arm (No.7).Among the remaining 23 acrocentric pairs,one is outstandingly large,some (e.g No.25 and 26) have a minute arm in all these 3 subspecies.But there appeared a minute arm on Nos.10,11,27 and 29 pairs of chromosome only in T.b.tonquinia and T.b.yaoshanensis.The X chromosome is a large submetacentric,and the Y,a small acrocentric,which is similar to Nos.22-25 acrocentrics acording to size and morphology. (2)The G-banding patterns of chromosomes are similar for 3 subspecies of tree shrews.The centromeric distribution of heterochromatin has been demonstrated in all chromosome of 3 subspecies.Interstitial distribution of heterochromatin has also been demonstrated on the long arm in a largest acrocentric in 3 subspecies.The minute arms of chromosome pair 25 and 26 are heterochromatic in T.b.chinenesis.The minute arms of chromosome pair 10,11.25,27 and 29 are also heterochromtic in T.b.tonquinia and T.b.yaoshanensis.Y chromosome is completely C-band positive.Replicating bands of T.b.chinensis chromosomes are revealed by the BrdU-Giemsa technique.Y chromosome is late replicating which appears pale compared with the rest complement in the favourable metaphase. (3)Ag-NORs have been observed at the secondary constriction and terminal of the chromosome pair 3,6 and 7 in all subspecies.
Fluctuations in yearly numerical tendency of the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Heilongjiang province,China were analysed based on the fur purchase numbers during 13 years (1971-1983).Taking the interval between two peak years as a cycle,thenthere wer 4 cycles in Total Area (whole province) Analysis,the interval on average was 3-year,the coefficient of variation was 23.57%.The datas were also analysed by dividing the Total Area into eight Subdivisional Areas and the combining their cycles for further analysis.In Subdivisions Combination Analysis,totally 26 cycles were obtained,with a peak year appearing for every 3.42 years,the coefficient of variation was 39.78% Results of statistical testing ooth in Total Area and Subdivisions Combination analyses revealed that fluctuations in yearly numerical tendency of the Red Fox coincided with random fluctuations.Among causes which effected fluctuations the density of Red fox was not main factor.
A complete procedure of nuclei isolation and purification from Leishmania gerbilli was established.With this procedure highly purified nuclei of L.gerbilli can be obtained.The isopycnic density of the nuclei is about 1.048-1.051 in percoll media.
Four kinds of thrombin-like principles (TLP) for comparing their enzymological properties were studied.In vitro,the result shows that TLP[4]>TLP[3]>TLP[1]>TLP[2] for the activity of coagulation and the activity of arginineesterase is higher in TLP[1] and TLP[2] than that in TLP[3] and TLP[4].Defibrination of TLP[1] or TLP[2] is strong,but hemocoagulation of TLP[4] and TLP[3] is strong in vivo.The four enzymes show differences in influence of Ca,pH,EDTA,temperature and heparin upon the activities of the enzymes.The result is similar to the thrombin-like enzymes obtained from Bothrops asper venom.The rerult may make sense in their application.
This paper reports the relation between changes of their body weight body length and their age growing of 645 Marmota sibirica.It turned out that their body weight and body length increase by degrees along with their age growing,but the increasing speed of their body weight and body length range is different.Their body weight increases more quickly and their range is larger,but their body length increases more slowly and their range is less.It proved,according to analysis of correlation that their body weight and body length are positive correlation with their age.The coefficient of crrelation and the regression equation are like this: Yw=1377.16x0.7729,Rw=0.9970; YL=33.95x0.2529,RL=0.9947.And in the terms of the significant difference (P<0.01) of their weight aver age between two neigboring age groups,the frequency disitribution overlaps unclearly and there is the feature that their changes show no difference and so on.Referring to the standard value (Mean±Sx) of their weight of eveng age group,we delimit the range of the body weight of Marmota sibirica in each age group.
This paper reported the suitable season and canal for the ghost moths larvae to be infected by Chinese "insect herb" fungus.The results derived from ecological observation showed that the larvae of the ghost moths were infected from the middle of July to the end of August in nature and this period is the peaks for the larvae to shed skin.The fourth and fifth instar larvae were the most suitable to be infected.And the larvae below third instar were not suitable for infection.
This paper deals with the life tables and the effects of different population density on the survival rate,the developmental rate and the ovipositional rate of the 2nd and 3rd generational xeperimental populations of Diaphania indica (saunders).The results indicated that:(1)the intrinsic rates of increase (rm) of its 2nd and 3rd generational experimental populational are 0.0792 and 0.0487,respectively.(2)its accumulated ovipositional rates hold S-type change forms as the ovipositional time.(3)the larval developmental rate,the larval survival rate and the adult ovipositional rate drop as the population density is increased.
63 species and subspecies of amphibians belonging to 19 genera,9 families and 2 orders have been collected in Guizhou province.There are 2 new provincial records,Rana latouchii and Rhacophorus cavirostris.A zoogeographical analysis of the amphibians fauna shows that it consists of five kinds of elements:Central Chinese elements,Central and Southern Chinese elements,Southwestplateau elements,Southern Chinese elements and Palaearctic and Oriental elements.It is suggested that with respect to its amphibians fauna,Guizhou may be further divided into five faunal provinces.In the western faunal province the Southwest-plateau elements are dominant.It belongs to Southwestern China region.In the northern and southeastern faunal provinces the Central Chinese elements are dominant.They belong to Central China region.In the central faunal province the Central and Southern Chinese elements are dominant.It belongs to Central China region.In the southern faunal province the Central and Southern Chinese elements are dominant.The region belonging to Central China region is considered to be a transitional zone between the Central Chinese and the Southern Chinese region.The similar degree of the amphibians among five faunal province has been calculated.
The classification of Chinese siluriform fishes has long been in chaotic condition.A lot of erroneous records and misidentification took place either at species or generic taxa.The chaotic condition was enhanced by the fact that the collections were sporadic and incomplete,and that the types deposited in foreign museums were not easy to access.These odjective conditions greatly restricted our vision on the geographical distribution of Chinese siluriform fishes.It was not until the end of 1987 that a systematic revision of the Chinese siluriform fishes was completed jointly by the author and others.The result of systematic revision makes the geographical analysis possible.So far,the Chinese siluriform fishfauna comprises 11 families,28 genera,111 species.These figures is greatly increased in comparison with historical records.The distribution of siluriform families in China is shown in Tab.2.The distribution of Siluridae is the widest,including 9 species,distributed in 5 regions,12 subregions,mainly concentrating in East China Region and South China Region.Next to Siluridae is Bagridae,including 29 species,distributed in 4 regions,10 subregions,mainly concentrating in East China Region and South China Region.The family Sisoridae involved 44 species is the most abundant one,distributed in 3 regions,mainly in South China Region.The distribution of siluriform fishes in China is shown in Tab.3.The Nukiang-Lanchang Subregion is the most abundant including 44 species,Pearl River Subregion the next including 34 species,Kiang-Huae Subregion the third including 25 species,West Sichuan Subregion the fourth including 22 species,Chekiang-Fukien Subregion the fifth including 20 species.So far as the region is concerned,the South China Region is the most abundant in species.Consequently,the author assums that the South China Region is the distributional center of Chinese siluriform fishes.
We have made investigations and observations on the bred situation of the Oriental white storks (Ciconia ciconia boyciana Swinhoe) in the east suburb of Qiqihar from 1969 to 1986.The birds nested at 7 places,where located the N 47°9′-47°19′and the E 124°128′-124°21′.The total surface of the area is about 90- 132 km2.The bred situation nand their nested spots distribution show in the map 1 and the Table 1.In order to tell the breeding circumstance of the white storks in the suburb of Qiqihar,we use the Table 2 and 3 to show the rates of nesting,egg-laying,hatchability,nestling survival,and their increase rate with thos compared with the rates of failured and losses within 18 years.We take up the problems to solved in the breeding of the Oriental White Storks.