Volume 40 Issue 3
May  2019
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents

Wei Li, Ling-Yun Luo, Xun Yang, Yong He, Bin Lian, Chao-Hua Qu, Qing-Yuan Wu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Peng Xie. Depressed female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) display a higher second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio[J]. Zoological Research, 2019, 40(3): 219-225. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2019.022
Citation: Wei Li, Ling-Yun Luo, Xun Yang, Yong He, Bin Lian, Chao-Hua Qu, Qing-Yuan Wu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Peng Xie. Depressed female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) display a higher second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio[J]. Zoological Research, 2019, 40(3): 219-225. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2019.022

Depressed female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) display a higher second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2019.022
Funds:  This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (816 01207) and National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (2017YFA 0505700)
More Information
  • Corresponding author: Peng Xie
  • Received Date: 2018-07-07
  • Publish Date: 2019-05-18
  • This research aimed to provide evidence of a relationship between digit ratio and depression status in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). In stable cynomolgus monkey social groups, we selected 15 depressed monkeys based on depressive-like behavioral criteria and 16 normal control monkeys. All animals were video recorded for two weeks, with the duration and frequency of the core depressive behaviors and 58 other behaviors in 12 behavioral categories then evaluated via behavioral analysis. Finger lengths from the right and left forelimb hands of both groups were measured by X-ray imaging. Finger length and digit ratio comparisons between the two groups were conducted using Student’s t-test. In terms of the duration of each behavior, significant differences emerged in “Huddling” and five other behavioral categories, including Ingestive, Amicable, Parental, Locomotive, and Resting. In addition to the above five behavioral categories, we found that depressed monkeys spent less time in parental and rubbing ‘ and forth behaviors than the control group. Furthermore, the 4th fingers were significantly longer in the left and right hands in the control group relative to the depressed monkeys. The second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio in the left and right forelimb hands was significantly lower in the control group than that in the depressed group. Our findings revealed significant differences in finger lengths and digit ratios between depressed monkeys and healthy controls, which concords with our view that relatively high fetal testosterone exposure may be a protective factor against developing depressive symptoms (or that low fetal testosterone exposure is a risk factor).
  • 加载中
  • [1]
    null Bailey AA , Hurd PL . 2005. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women. Biological Psychology, 68: 215–222.
    null Capitanio JP . 2017. Naturally occurring nonhuman primate models of psychosocial processes. ILAR Journal, 58(2): 226–234.
    null Carre JM , Ortiz TL , Labine B , Moreau BJ , Viding E , Neumann CS , Goldfarb B . 2015. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and psychopathic traits moderate the effect of exogenous testosterone on socio-cognitive processes in men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 62: 319–326.
    null Choi IH , Kim KH , Jung H , Yoon SJ , Kim SW , Kim TB . 2011. Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult penile length. Asian Journal of Andrology, 13(5): 710–714.
    null Dedovic K , Slavich GM , Muscatell KA , Irwin MR , Eisenberger NI . 2016. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex responses to repeated social evaluative feedback in young women with and without a history of depression. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10: 64
    null Evardone M , Alexander GM . 2009. Anxiety, sex-linked behaviors, and digit ratios (2D:4D). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(3): 442–455
    null Felger JC , Alagbe O , Hu F , Mook D , Freeman AA , Sanchez MM , Kalin NH , Ratti E , Nemeroff CB , Miller AH . 2007. Effects of interferon-alpha on rhesus monkeys: a nonhuman primate model of cytokine-induced depression. Biological Psychiatry, 62(11):1324–1333.
    null Gelenberg AJ . 2010. The prevalence and impact of depression. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(3): e06.
    null Gnanavel S , Robert RS . 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition, and the impact of events scale-revised. Chest, 144(6):1974.
    null Goodman FR , Scambler PJ . 2001. Human HOX gene mutations. Clinical Genetics, 59(1):1–11.
    null Gorka AX , Norman RE , Radtke SR , Carre JM , Hariri AR . 2015. Anterior cingulate cortex gray matter volume mediates an association between 2D:4D ratio and trait aggression in women but not men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 56:148–156.
    null Hérault Y , Fraudeau N , Zákány J , Duboule D . 1997. Ulnaless(Ul), a regulatory mutation inducing both loss-of-function and gain-of-function of posterior Hoxd genes. Development, 124(18): 3493–3500.
    null Ho TC , Sacchet MD , Connolly CG , Margulies DS , Tymofiyeva O , Paulus MP , Simmons AN, Gotlib IH , Yang TT . 2017. Inflexible functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in adolescent major depressive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(12):2434–2445.
    null H?nekopp J , Bartholdt L , Beier L , Liebert A . 2007. Second to fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) and adult sex hormone levels: new data and a meta-analytic review. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32(4):313–321.
    null Kallai J , Csathó A , K?vér F , Makány T , Nemes J , Horváth K , Kovács N , Manning JT , Nadel L , Nagy F . 2005. MRI-assessed volume of left and right hippocampi in females correlates with the relative length of the second and fourth fingers (the 2D:4D ratio). Psychiatry Research, 140(2):199–210.
    null Kalichman L , Batsevich V , Kobyliansky E . 2017. 2 D4 D finger length ratio and radiographic hand osteoarthritis. Rheumatology International, 38(5):865–870.
    null Krishnan V , Nestler EJ . 2008. The molecular neurobiology of depression. Nature, 455(7215): 894–902.
    null Kyriakidis I , Papaioannidou P , Pantelidou V , Kalles V , Gemitzis K . 2010. Digit ratios and relation to myocardial infarction in Greek men and women. Gender Medicine, 7(6): 628–636.
    null Lutchmaya S 1 , Baron-Cohen S , Raggatt P , Knickmeyer R , Manning JT . 2004. 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol. Early Human Development, 77(1–2): 23–28.
    null Manning J , Kilduff L , Cook C , Crewther B , Fink B . 2014. Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and adult sex steroids in challenge situations. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5:9.
    null Manning JT , Scutt D , Wilson J , Lewis-Jones DI . 1998. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen. Human Reproduction, 13(11):3000–3004.
    null Muller DC , Giles GG , Bassett J , Morris HA , Manning JT , Hopper JL , English DR , Severi G . 2011. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 9: 57.
    null Nelson E , Shultz S . 2010. Finger length ratios (2D:4D) in anthropoids implicate reduced prenatal androgens in social bonding. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 141(3): 395–405.
    null Nelson E , Voracek M . 2010. Heritability of digit ratio (2D:4D) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Primates, 51(1):1–5.
    null Ronalds G , Phillips DIW , Godfrey KM , Manning JT . 2002. The ratio of second to fourth digit lengths: a marker of impaired fetal growth. Early Human Development, 68(1): 21–26.
    null Sherrill JT , Anderson B , Frank E , Reynolds CF , Tu XM , Patterson D , Ritenour A , Kupfer DJ . 1997. Is life stress more likely to provoke depressive episodes in women than in men? Depress Anxity , 6(3): 95–105
    null Shively CA , Register TC , Friedman DP , Morgan TM , Thompson J , Lanier T . 2005. Social stress-associated depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Biological Psychology, 69(1): 67–84.
    null Smedley KD , Mckain KJ , Mckain DN . 2014. 2 D4 D digit ratio predicts depression severity for females but not for males. Personality and Individual Differences. 70 (11):136–139.
    null Trivers R , Manning J , Jacobson A . 2006. A longitudinal study of digit ratio (2D:4D) and other finger ratios in Jamaican children. Hormones and Behavior. 49 (2):150–156.
    null Willard SL , Shively CA . 2012. Modeling depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology, 74(6):528–542.
    null Williams TJ , Pepitone ME , Christensen SE . 2000. Finger length ratios and sexual orientation. Nature, 404: 455–456.
    null Xu F , Wu Q , Xie L , Gong W , Zhang J , Zheng P , Zhou Q , Ji Y , Wang T , Li X , Fang L , Li Q , Yang D , Li J , Melgiri ND , Shively C , Xie P . 2015. Macaques exhibit a naturally-occurring depression similar to humans. Scientific Reports, 5: 9220.
    null Xu F , Xie L , Li X , Li Q , Wang T , Ji YJ , Kong F , Zhan QL , Cheng K , Fang L , Xie P . 2012. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure. PLoS One, 7: e37486.
    null Zhou Q , Xu F , Wu Q , Gong W , Xie L , Wang T , Fang L , Yang D , Melgiri ND , Xie P . 2014. The mutual influences between depressed Macaca fascicularis mothers and their infants. PLoS One, 9: e89931.
  • 加载中
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
  • 1. 

    沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

  1. 本站搜索
  2. 百度学术搜索
  3. 万方数据库搜索
  4. CNKI搜索

Article Metrics

Article views(674) PDF downloads(329) Cited by()

Related
Proportional views

Depressed female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) display a higher second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2019.022
Funds:  This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (816 01207) and National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (2017YFA 0505700)
    Corresponding author: Peng Xie

Abstract: This research aimed to provide evidence of a relationship between digit ratio and depression status in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). In stable cynomolgus monkey social groups, we selected 15 depressed monkeys based on depressive-like behavioral criteria and 16 normal control monkeys. All animals were video recorded for two weeks, with the duration and frequency of the core depressive behaviors and 58 other behaviors in 12 behavioral categories then evaluated via behavioral analysis. Finger lengths from the right and left forelimb hands of both groups were measured by X-ray imaging. Finger length and digit ratio comparisons between the two groups were conducted using Student’s t-test. In terms of the duration of each behavior, significant differences emerged in “Huddling” and five other behavioral categories, including Ingestive, Amicable, Parental, Locomotive, and Resting. In addition to the above five behavioral categories, we found that depressed monkeys spent less time in parental and rubbing ‘ and forth behaviors than the control group. Furthermore, the 4th fingers were significantly longer in the left and right hands in the control group relative to the depressed monkeys. The second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio in the left and right forelimb hands was significantly lower in the control group than that in the depressed group. Our findings revealed significant differences in finger lengths and digit ratios between depressed monkeys and healthy controls, which concords with our view that relatively high fetal testosterone exposure may be a protective factor against developing depressive symptoms (or that low fetal testosterone exposure is a risk factor).

Wei Li, Ling-Yun Luo, Xun Yang, Yong He, Bin Lian, Chao-Hua Qu, Qing-Yuan Wu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Peng Xie. Depressed female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) display a higher second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio[J]. Zoological Research, 2019, 40(3): 219-225. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2019.022
Citation: Wei Li, Ling-Yun Luo, Xun Yang, Yong He, Bin Lian, Chao-Hua Qu, Qing-Yuan Wu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Peng Xie. Depressed female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) display a higher second-to-fourth (2D:4D) digit ratio[J]. Zoological Research, 2019, 40(3): 219-225. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2019.022
Reference (1)

Catalog

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return