Volume 40 Issue 2
Mar.  2019
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You-Ji Zhang, Yi-Xin Chen, Hao-Chun Chen, Yuan Chen, Hui Yao, Wan-Ji Yang, Xiang-Dong Ruan, Zuo-Fu Xiang. Social functions of relaxed open-mouth display in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Zoological Research, 2019, 40(2): 113-120. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.043
Citation: You-Ji Zhang, Yi-Xin Chen, Hao-Chun Chen, Yuan Chen, Hui Yao, Wan-Ji Yang, Xiang-Dong Ruan, Zuo-Fu Xiang. Social functions of relaxed open-mouth display in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Zoological Research, 2019, 40(2): 113-120. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.043

Social functions of relaxed open-mouth display in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.043
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  • Corresponding author: Zuo-Fu Xiang,E-mail:xiangzf@csuft.edu.cn
  • Publish Date: 2019-03-18
  • Relaxed open-mouth display serves important social functions in relation to submission, reconciliation, affiliation and reassurance among non-human primate societies; however, quantitative evidence on this behavior remains insufficient among multi-level social groups. From July to November 2016, we examined four potential functions of the relaxed open-mouth display during pairwise, intra-unit social interactions among 18 free-ranging adult and sub-adult golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) who belonged to three one-male, multi-female units (OMU) at Dalongtan, Shennongjia National Park, China. Results showed that: compared with no relaxed open-mouth display, (1) the occurrence of displacement by a dominant individual approaching a subordinate was lower and the distance of the subordinate to the approaching dominant was shorter when the subordinate showed open-mouth display; (2) relaxed open-mouth display reduced the probability of continued attack for victims of aggression and allowed victims to achieve closer proximity to the aggressor during post-conflict periods; (3) relaxed open-mouth display by dominant individuals allowed them to achieve closer proximity to subordinates; and (4) the exchange of relaxed open-mouth display had a greater impact on the outcome of interactions than one individual alone giving this signal. These findings suggest that relaxed open-mouth display serves important functions regarding submission, reconciliation, affiliation and reassurance in coordinating social interactions within OMUs in golden snub-nosed monkeys.
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Social functions of relaxed open-mouth display in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)

doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.043
Funds:   
    Corresponding author: Zuo-Fu Xiang,E-mail:xiangzf@csuft.edu.cn

Abstract: Relaxed open-mouth display serves important social functions in relation to submission, reconciliation, affiliation and reassurance among non-human primate societies; however, quantitative evidence on this behavior remains insufficient among multi-level social groups. From July to November 2016, we examined four potential functions of the relaxed open-mouth display during pairwise, intra-unit social interactions among 18 free-ranging adult and sub-adult golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) who belonged to three one-male, multi-female units (OMU) at Dalongtan, Shennongjia National Park, China. Results showed that: compared with no relaxed open-mouth display, (1) the occurrence of displacement by a dominant individual approaching a subordinate was lower and the distance of the subordinate to the approaching dominant was shorter when the subordinate showed open-mouth display; (2) relaxed open-mouth display reduced the probability of continued attack for victims of aggression and allowed victims to achieve closer proximity to the aggressor during post-conflict periods; (3) relaxed open-mouth display by dominant individuals allowed them to achieve closer proximity to subordinates; and (4) the exchange of relaxed open-mouth display had a greater impact on the outcome of interactions than one individual alone giving this signal. These findings suggest that relaxed open-mouth display serves important functions regarding submission, reconciliation, affiliation and reassurance in coordinating social interactions within OMUs in golden snub-nosed monkeys.

You-Ji Zhang, Yi-Xin Chen, Hao-Chun Chen, Yuan Chen, Hui Yao, Wan-Ji Yang, Xiang-Dong Ruan, Zuo-Fu Xiang. Social functions of relaxed open-mouth display in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Zoological Research, 2019, 40(2): 113-120. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.043
Citation: You-Ji Zhang, Yi-Xin Chen, Hao-Chun Chen, Yuan Chen, Hui Yao, Wan-Ji Yang, Xiang-Dong Ruan, Zuo-Fu Xiang. Social functions of relaxed open-mouth display in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Zoological Research, 2019, 40(2): 113-120. doi: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.043

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