1998 Vol. 19, No. 1
Carnoys fluid and neutral buffered formalin(NBF)have been proved to be good fixatives for preservation of mast cells in pig,cattle and sheep except NBF blocked staining of most porcine mast cells,especially those located in intestinal mucosa (MMC) and in thymus medulla(TMMC).Both toluidine blue and Alcian blue were the excellent stains generally,but Alcian blue stained more porcine mast cells than did toluidine blue (P<0.01).Staining with toluidine blue of a wide pH range(from 0.1 to 7.0)showed that porcine mast cells were not very pH dependent,but the dye at pH 0.5 seemed to have the strongest affinity for all mast cells in pigs and it was also suitable for bovine and ovine mast cell staining.In the three species,unlike in rodents,the Alcian blue method did not distinguish between mast cells in the intestinal mucosa (MMC) and those in the connective tissue of the intestinal submucosa,tongue and skin (CTMC).Porcine CTMC,but not MMC,fluoresced strongly when stained with berberine sulphate or with a mixture of berberine sulphate and acridine orange.It suggested that porcine CTMC contained heparin proteoglycan.
Under light and electron microscope,the head kidney of grass carp was found to have two type of veins:head-renal and portal veins,and a number of sinusoids with extensive lumina.The lymphocytes of head kidney were distributed around portal veins and its sinusoids,forming lymphocyte aggregate region,while granulocytes distributed around head-renal veins and its sinusoids,forming granulocyte aggregate region.The head kidney contained a number of immune cells,comprised approximately 62.2% lymphocyte,36.6% granulocytes,1.2% monocytes and macrophages.The weight of head kidney organ and amounts of its immune cells were examined for each grow stage of grass carp.It was shown that total weight of head kidney increased with body weight and age.However,The development of the head kidney correlates better with weight than with age.Total number of immune cells of head kidney increased correspondingly with head kidney weight.In general,the number/mg weight of head kidney stabilized from 100 to 132 ten thousand,the mean was 117.3(±9.98)ten thousand.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) of cocks were partially blocked with 75,50,25,10 mg/kg of RU486,an antagonist,for 24 hours and 50 mg/kg of RU486 for 72 hours.The immunological changes were studied in the process.The results showed that the IL-2 and IFN inductive activities of lymphocytes,the mitogenic activities of T and B cells,the percentages of lymphocyte,ANAE＋cell,monocyte and the ratios of immune organ-to-body weight were greatly reduced (P<0.01) when the GR of chickens were blocked with 75 and 50 mg／kg of RU486.There were no significant changes in adove immune indexes when the GR of cocks were blocked whith 10 and 20 mg/kg of RU486.All the examined immune indexes were lower than those of control (P<0.01) and cocks GR-blocked with 50 mg/(kg·day) of RU486 for 72 hours.This indicated that the immune functions of immune system were closely related to the active GR concentration of immune cells in cock,and that greatly blocked GR of cock were resulted in immunossupression.Correlation analyses showed that the immune activities in cocks GR-blocked with RU486 were dose dependent.This suggested that the immune functions and active GR content in cock were positively correlated with eath other.
Experiments on urethane-anesthetized Carduelis spinus were performed.The effects of electrical and chemical stimulation to the nucleus lateral magnocellularis of anterior neostriatum (lMAN) on vocalization and respiration were observed.The results were as follows:(1) Electrical stimulation of lMAN caused vocal response.(2) Long train electrical stimulation of lMAN elicited an increase of respiratory rate and a reducing of respiratory depth.(3) Short train stimulation administered in lMAN during the inspiratory and expiratory phase terminated the inspiratory switch-off and prolongation of expiratory phase so as to coordinate vocalization.(4) Microinjection of ethanol into lMAN produced an alternate change of the respiratory inhibition first,and then increase of respiratory rate and depth.These results showed that lMAN had some effects on respiration besides vocal control.This suggested that lMAN might take a part in coordinating singing and respiration.
Four Yorkshire-Erhualian growing gilts implanted with a chronic jugular vein catheter were used to investigate the short-term effect of cimaterol (CIM) on serum metabolite concentration,GPT activity and neuroendocrine hormone level.When the gilts were treated with 1 μg/g CIM,SUN decreased significantly and maintained low level in the 5 days observed,while serum FFA maintained a high level.Serum GPT activity and β-endorphin concentration increased too.SS concentration significantly decreased and gastrin level elevated.The results showed that CIM significantly improved protein anabolic metabolism and increased nitrogen deposition in gilts,while significantly stimulated fat degradation through altering SS and β-endorphin levels.
1998, 19(1): 31-37.
Feeding of Mesocyclops leuckarti on Moina and Diaphanosoma was studied by feeding experiments and field investigations in Lake Donghu during June-September of 1995.The results showed M.leuckarti could capture and eat Moina and Diaphanosoma.Mean feeding rates of M.leuckarti on small-sized(200-257 μm)Moina was higher than that of large-sized(357-500 μm)Moina.The results of multiple range analysis(Method:95% Least Significant Difference)for feeding rates of small-sized and large-sized Moina by Mesocyclops revealed a statistically significant difference (P=0.0335).Predators prefer small to large prey.Because of feeding habits,M.leuckarti may have an important impact on the population dynamics of Moina and Diaphanosoma,but with increase of fish yield,the effect of feeding of M.leuckarti on prey may be underestimated.
The developmental rates of Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri were determined under seven constant temperatures,and the threshold temperature of development and effective accumulative temperature of each stage of the ladybeetle was also ascertained.Relationships between developmental rate and temperature could be finely fitted with the model proposed by Wang Rusong et al.(1982).From the model,the highest critical temperatures of development,lowest critical temperatures of development and optimum temperatures of development were estimated to be 10.42-13.01 ℃,33.52-37.03 ℃ and 24.99-30.12 ℃ respectively.Egg stage exhibited the highest ability to emdure changes in temperature,and the 4th-instar displayed the lowest ability.Temperature could obviously affect the survival rate and the type of survival curve of C.kuwanae.Favourable temperature range for development of the ladybeetle was 22-31 ℃.Survival rates in this range were quite similar,and within 28-31 ℃ survival rates were highest.In the paper, we discussed the following topics:the advantages of the model offered by Wang Rusong et al.(1982) over the Logistic equation,possible relationship between the threshold temperature of development and the lowest critical temperature of development,and the effect on explaining the contributing factor of geological distribution of C.kuwanae in Guizhou with results of this research.
From 1994 to 1995,an observation was carried out on the community structure of Ardeidae birds in Taigongshan Hill,Zhejiang.The community was made up of Ardeola bacchus,Nycticorax nycticorax,Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis.Based on the niche breadth of horizontal and vertical pattern,this paper made the community matrix and dendrogram of the birds with the methods proposed by Schoener (1968) and Cody (1974) and discussed the utilization states for space and the interspecific relationships of the community.
The comparative morphology of the lips and associated structures is studied among Parasinilabeo and its taxonomically related groups.On the basis of the morphological features of the lips and associated structures,Parasinilabeo is proposed to be closely associated with Pseudogyrinocheilus and Semilabeo;and four typical mouth patterns are identifled among Parasinilabeo and its taxonomically related groups.
During February and March 1995,a Slovenian caving expedition led by Andrej Miheve in association with the Institute of Karst Geology from Guilin explored the karst region in Libo County,south of Guizhou,a province in China.During the expedition,3 blind loach specimens were collected by Gregor Aljancic,They have been recognized as a new species of the genus Paracobitis:P.longibarbatus sp.nov.The new species possesses the following characters:adipose keel is present along the dorsal and ventral edge of caudal peduncle,depth of adipose keel less than half of depth of caudal peduncle;nostrils are situated closely together,the anterior nostril formed into a tube with a long nostral barbel.These characters indicate that it belongs to the genus Paracobitis,regardless of the presence of a nostral barbel at the terminal of nostral tube.Similar nostral tube was observed also in P.variegatus longidorsalis Yang et al.The eyes and pigment are disappeared as the result of convergent evolution adapting to the lightless habitat.The same convergent phenomena are prevalent in the cavefishes of Cobitidae and Cyprinidae.This new species is the first blind loach in the genus Paracobitis,representing a specialized lineage of the genus.It is related to epigean P.variegatus longidorsalis which occurs in the same basin,Xijiang Basin.The new species can be easily distinguished from all congeneric species by the following characters:eyes and pigment disappeared,anterior nostril tube-like with a nostral barbel at the terminal;barbels,pectoral and pelvic fins well elongated;posterior margin of caudal fin strongly concave.
This paper describes three new species of the genus Sophonia from China.The type specimens are deposited in Guizhou Agricultural College.
1998, 19(1): 71-76.
In this paper,three new species of Caricea from Sichuan and Zhejiang Provices are described.The type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Entomology,Shenyang Normal College.
This paper describes three new species of the Calliphoridae and Muscidae of the Calyptratae from mountainous region of western Sichuan Province,named Melinda apicihamata sp.nov.,Coenosia nigrimixta sp.nov.and Coenosia flavimixta sp.nov.The type specimens are kept in the Institute of Entomology,Shenyang Normal College.
1998, 19(1): 83-89.
This paper reviewed the recent researches on the endocrine regulation of reproduction in frog by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis;and proposed some respectives for the future research in this field from theory and its application.
1998, 19(1): 90-92.