1995 Vol. 16, No. 2
The present paper reports the genus Armigeres of Yunnan,totally 13 valid species,including a new species;the new species is closed to Ar.aureolineatusand their differences are as followsHolotype:1 female;allotype,1 male;paratypes,7 males,6 females and 4 larvae,all collected from bamboo holes in Jinhong of Yunnan Province (Dong,Ⅺ,1993);all types deposited in the Institute of Malaria Prevention and Treatment of Yunnan Province.
The present paper deals with three new species of Liposcelididae from China.The types are preserved in the Insect Collection of Beijing Agricultural University.
The digestive system of Sarcoptes scabiei is described by means of light and electron microscopy.It may be divided into pharynx,esophagus,midgut,paired lateral caecae,colon,rectum,anus and salivary glands.The epithelial cells of midgut and lateral caecae are divided into aqamous cells,columnar cells,round cells undergoing nuclear degeneration and completely degenerated cells,which show different functions.The large paired salivary glands lie anterior and lateral to the anterior midgut.They consist of about 4-6 large cells which may be divided into three stages.
The paper deals with the motility and ultrastructure of ram spermatozoa treated with carnosine and gossypol under optical microscope and electron microscope.The results are as follows:1) Carnosine helped significantly the motility of ram spermatozoa and increased obviously the number of sperm with straight movement.2) Gossypol inhibited strongly the motility of ram spermatozoa and changed the movement manners of them.3) Carnosine could relief the harmful effects of gossypol on ram spermatozoa which had been treated by mixing carnosine with gossypol.The effects of carnosine on the motility of sperm were closely correlative to the time and sequence adding carnosine and gossypol.4) Carnosine hadnt any harmful effects to the ultrastructure of ram spermatozoa.However,gossypol could cause the serious injury of ram spermatozoa and organic membrane system,collapse of axoneme and confusion of mitochondria helixes.
In this paper,using protein electrophorsis,we analyzed two different populations of Yunnan horses,the Yunnan common horses (21 individuals) and the short horses(14 individuals).Of all the 44 genetic loci surveyed,10 of them were found to be polymorphic.Therefore,as for the common horse population,the percentage of polymorphic loci(P) is 0.227,the mean heterozygosity(H) is 0.089 and the mean number of allels(A) is 1.273.In short horse population,P=0.205,H=0.083,A=1.250.The above results indicated that both the common and short horse populations were wealthy of genetic diversity.There existed many variations of alleles in the two populations from limited areas of Yunnan Province.Futhermore,we calculated Neis genetic distance (D) between the two populations and got a value of 0.0317,which imply a certain degree of genetic differentiation between them.According to the hypothesis of molecular clock,we speculated that the divergent event occurred about 18.5 million years ago.
The function of mitochondria is very conserved in almost all eukaryotes,while the sizes and structures of mitochondrial genomes are very diverse among animals,plants,protozoa,algae and fungi.The causes for these differences and the corresponding evolutionary paths are yet to be found.Animal mitochondrial genomes are very small and compact,with a size of about 16 kb.As"an extreme example of genetic economy",introns and non-coding repeated sequences are absent,and the arrangement of genes is relatively stable.On the other hand,higher plant mitochondrial genomes are very large,ranging from 186 kb to 2400 kb.Their genomes are complex and heterogeneous,with many repeated sequences and introns present.On the whole,animal and plant mitochondrial genomes represent the two extremes of this organelle genome in eukaryotes.As for the mitochondrial genomes of protozoa,algae and fungi,their sizes and structures are somewhere in between these two extremes.Although heterogeneous within group,repeated sequences may be found in mitochondrial genomes of protozoa and fungi,The existence of introns are common in fungal mitochondrial genomes,even in the smallest ones,several introns are present.Among these three kinds of lower eukaryotes,when the mitochondrial genome is relatively small,its structure is rather like that of animals than plants.Conversely,if the genome is relatively large,it resembles plants rather than animals.With the analysis of the structural character of mitochondrial genomes in different eukaryotes,it seems that there are also two evolutionary scenarios for mitochondrial genomes similar to those for nuclear (nucleoid) genomes proposed by the author.As a proposed pattern for the origin and evolution of repeated sequences,gene and genome structure (Zhang,1990),repeated sequences may have an ancient origin,dating back to the early stages of biological evolution.The most primitive"genes" and "genomes" would be composed of repeated sequences.With this basis,evolution would lead to a kind of genome consisting of early split genes and repeated sequences.Two possibilities for the further evolution of this kind of genome would lead to either small genome organisms or large genome organisms with different genomic character.If an organism evolved to have a small genome,it must first contain the genes with higher functions for its efficient survival,leaving little or no room for repeated sequences and introns (they were lost in the course of evolution).On the contrary,if an organism evolved to have a large genome,it may contain both the necessary genes and repeated sequences and introns.The repeated sequences and introns would be then"relics"of the primitive genomes,they would continue to play structural and evolutionary roles in modern genomes containing them.Modern prokaryotes would be the representatives of "small genome"evolutionary scenario,while the "large genome"scenario would be represented by modern eukaryotes.With the proposed pattern and the theory of endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria,it can be assumed that the ancestor of mitochondria possessed already a genome of considerable size,with repeated sequences and introns present.This kind of primitive mitochondrial genome evolved either to "small genome"mitochondria,introns and repeated sequences being lost,as in the case of animals as well as other eukaryotes with small mitochondrial genomes;or to "large genome"mitochondria as those of plants and other eukaryotes with large mitochondrial genomes.These two evolutionary scenarios can explain well the structural character of mitochondrial genomes in different kinds of eukaryotes.The repeated sequences in plant,protozoan and fungal mitochondrial genomes,and the introns in plant and fungal mitochondrial genomes,can be considered as "relics"of the ancestor of mitochondria.Their existence would not be a conflict with,but rather a support to the endosymbiont theory.In this context,a general pattern for the origin and evolution of nuclear (nucleoid) genomes and mitochondrial genomes (organelle genomes) can be summarized as follows (s,s as "small genome"scenario with repeated sequences and introns lost;1,1 as"large genome" scenario).
1995, 16(2): 146-152.
The DNAs were extracted from both fresh sample and fur specimens of the Indian muntjac (M.muntjak),the Chinese muntjac (M.reevesi),the black muntjac (M.crinifrons),Feas muntjac (M.feae),and the Gongshan muntjac (M.gongshanensis).For the fur specimens,DNAs of over 1.0 kilobase pair (kb) were obtained.Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) were performed for these DNAs using a pair of universal primers localized in cytochrome b gene of animal mitochondrial DNA.Fragments of about 360 base pair (bp) in size were detected by 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis.We used 28 restriction endonucleases to digest the amplified fragments and found some polymorphic sites among mtDNA of muntjacs.
The present paper analyzed the factors influencing the products of the HRP-TMB reaction in the reticular nucleus located at inferior lateralis inferior oliver nucleus in mice using HRP-TMB-ST histochemical methods.1.The high pH-value (7.0 and above) was the most important element for the disappearance of reactive products;0.2 mol/L PB (pH5.0-6.0) was proper for the sensitivity of HRP-TMB reactions,the steadiness of the products and the reserve of histoultrastructures;when the pH-value was fixed,the degree and speed of product disappearances were dependent on the concentration of the buffer.2.The alcohol played an unnegligible role in stabilizing the products.3.Neither the component and concentration of the advanced soaking and perfusion solutions nor the fixation time was related to the disappearance of procucts.In addition,when the slices were further treated with DAB after rinsed with bufffers (pH5.5 and pH7.0),the products showed no significant differences at ultrastructural level.
1995, 16(2): 161-165.
Cantharidin of Epicauta ruficeps Illiger was mainly detected in the reproductive glands of males and eggs.Compared with the avarage content of both males and females collected from field,newly-mated males transferred 70% of cantharidin to females,while cantharidin content in newly-mated females increased by 43%.Additionally,it was showed that cantharidin content extracted following hydrolysing this beetle with HCl went up 4 times.This study suggested that this beetle can be used as a supplementary traditional Chinese medicine.
This paper describes the origin,development and changes of follicle cells of ovary and egg envelopes in the oocytes of Silurus meridionalis Chen,collected from the Hechuan to Beibei of the Jialing River in 1991-1992.The follicle cells are originated from stromal cells of the ovary.According to the histological features,the developmental process of follicle cells can be divided into seven stages:stage of dispersal thecal cells,stage of a single layer of flat shaped thecal cells,stage of several layers of flat shaped thecal cells,stage of cuboidal granules cells,stage of cylindrical granular cells,stage of secretive and retrogressive granules cells.The micropylar cell is developed from a single,large,conical,modified follicle cell early in oogenesis.The primary envelope is originated from the oocyte itself.The secondary envelope may be deposited on the primary envelope surface and it is formed by the substances secreted from the granules cells.The function of the follicle cells and egg envelopes is discussed in this paper.
Seven male rhesus monkeys were used for the investigation of the histopathological changes of epididymides in the 2.5th and 3.5th years after intra-vasa deferens injection of high molecular polymer HFMC.Various dosages of HFMC(Hydrogel for male contraception)were given to the animals:30 mg per vas deferens for 1 animal,60 mg for 3 and 100 mg for 3.The light microscopic observation showed that there were slight local watery degeneration of epididymal epithelium,falling of some epithelial cells and expansion of lumen in some epididymal tubules in the 2.5th year following intra vas injection of HFMC but no obvious abnormality was found under light microscope in the 3.5th year.The main ultrastructure changes in the 2.5th year showed the swelling of mitochondria,slight vacuolar change of endoplasmic reticulum and damage of sperms in the epididymal tubles.The ultrastructure changes in the 3.5th year were similar to those in the 2.5th year.It is suggested that HFMC may directly or indirectly affect the epididymal structure and the epididymal enviroment due to its gradual release of H[+] as well as its partial and temporary occlusion of vasa deferens.This may be one of the reasons for its male contraceptive action.However,it seems that pathological may be restored after HFMC is progressively dissolved and excereted.
Time budgets in breeding season were studied in two captive groups of Lady Amhersts Pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) from March,1987 to July,1990.Percentages of time spent on main activities were:resting 40.46%,walking 38.95%,feeding 11.12%,preening 5.09%,breeding (including display,egg-laying) 3.34%,others (including call,attacking,drinking,dusting,excreting) 1.04%.Clustering various behaviours showed the advertising display was closely related to the precopulatory display in males,while egg-laying,drinking,dusting and preening had close relationship in females.Analysis of variance showed that time budgets between male and female were significantly different (P<0.05).Male spent significantly more time on breeding and preening,and less time on feeding than female.The time budgets in different stages of breeding season were different (P<0.05).The resting,preening,breeding in both sexes,and the walking in female among different stages had significant difference.The frequency of resting in breeding season was significantly lower than that in non-breeding season,while the frequency of preening was significantly higher than that in non-breeding season.Because food was in rich supply,Lady amherst s Pheasant in captivity spent more time in resting than in feeding.The time budgets of captive Lady Amherst s Pheasant were influenced by sexes,age,the stages of breeding season besides the environmental factors,group size and food supply.
1995, 16(2): 185-193.
The present paper dealt with that the cultured zooplankonts were proper as initial feed for juvenile Clarias lazera and growing feed for youth in the pond.The results showed that the body length of four days old juvenile increased to 3 cm and above after feed the zooplankonts for 13 days with a 23.2-30.3℃ water temperature.The survival rate of juvenile was more than 60%.The width of mouth of four days old juvenile was about 760-900 μm.The cladoceran,copepods and chironomids were mainly taken by juvenile at earlier stage of the growing period before 13 days old.When the age of juvenile grew up to fourteen days and above,they mainly took rotifers,juvenile aquatic insects and mix feed instead of cladocerans,copepods and chironamids.The feeding proportion of juvenile was more than 90%,the fullness degree of stomach of the most juvenile arrived to 3-5 degree with cladoceran,copepods and chironomids.There was a linear relation between body length and days age,and an exponential function was shown between body weight and days age,and the same function was also shown between body length and body weight.The growth speed of body length was constant,but the growth speed of body weight was acceleation.
1995, 16(2): 194-198.
The Silver Pheasant distributing extensively most of South China mountains was classified as the second class protected wildife in China.On the basis of ecological reserch in wild,we have succeeded to breed them in captivity.We have had arti-population of more than 800 Silver Pheasants and gotten the sixth generations so far.This paper summarized the results of culture and breed of 8 years confirmed that the Silver Pheasant can grow and breed in captivity smoothly.Oviposition period of population extended to 3.5 months.Average clutch size increased to 19.5,Egg size enlarged obviously.The fertility rate increased to 91.4%,incubation rate to 87.3%,survival rate of above 93% up to a month after birth,natality to 1100%.It was confirmed by reseach that the Silver Pheasant will be the economoc animal which has good future of culture for both feather and meat.This paper summarized skill of standardization breeding in captivity as well.