1994 Vol. 15, No. 3
Homalogonia sordida Zheng,sp.nov.Ground color ochraceous or pale greyish brown,with rather dense black fine punctures rendering overall coloration dark and fuscous in appearance.
In the present paper,four new species of the genus Hepialus are described.The type specimens collected from the snow mountains of alpine meadow are kept in the Kunming Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica,Kunming,China.
1994, 15(3): 13-17.
The present paper describes three new species of Cybocephalidae,all collected from Mashan (22.7°N,112.9°E),Heshan County,Guangdong Province.Two of the three new species were also recorded from other parts of China.The types are deposited in the authors Institute.
The comparative studies on the characteristics of Chinese bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis) songs between Shensi Island and Hangzhou area have been made in this paper with computer analysis techniques.The results shows that there were 15 song types in the bulbuls of Shensi Island (SB) and 6 in the bulbuls of Hangzhou (HB),and their trills were composed of a main sentence,including 3 syllables in SB and 4 in HB,and some other single syllables.Although there were some same characteristics on the composition of the song syllables and the way of calling between SB and HB,there were many different characteristics on the song structure between them.The intermission between syllables,for example,in SBs main sentence was longer than in HBs.The maximum MPF of the SBs main sentence was located in 2nd syllable minimum in 3rd syllable,and the powers and En values of the all syllables were high and no obvious difference.The total time of the SBs main sentence duration was 800.88±37.86 ms.In the HBs main sentence,there were no visible syllable intermissions besides between 1st and 2nd syllables,and the maximum MPF was located in 4th syllable and minimum in 3rd one.The power of all syllables were difference in HBs,and the En was mainly distributed in last syllable.The total lasting time of the HBs main sentence was 1076.65±58.2 ms.From the results,we also could know that the calling song had much more difference on the structure of temporal waves and power spectrum of the single syllable between SB and HB.The differences of the birds song structure between SB and HB might be correlated with their habitats.
1994, 15(3): 28-38.
The mitosis and meiosis of Pseudoxenodon macrops had been investigated,using conventional Giemsa and silver staining and BrdU induced condensation inhibition.The diploid number is 2n=36 with 16 macro- and 20 microchromosomes (macro autosomes are 10 metacentric and 6 submetacentric).Silver staining NORs were localized on the microchromosomes pair No.1.The high resoluting banding of Pseudoxenodon macrops is sucessfully made by blocking the cycle of cell with large dosage of TdR and incoporating BrdU into the replicating chromosomal DNA during synthesis phase.These banding patterns allow for the first time a precise identification of all macro-chromosomes and the analysis of the patterns of replication in the various stages of S-phase in snake.This information could clarify the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships among certain familes of colubrinae as well as the evolutionary relationships within certain families.
1994, 15(3): 33-37.
The karyotypes of 12 species of belonging to Passeriformes were studied from bone marrow cells with colohicine-hypotonic air-drying technique.Diploid numbers and chromosome morphology of related species previouly studied are compared with the results of the present study.Karyotype of all the studied species have considerable similarities in the whole appearance and size grouping of the chromosomes wihtin the karyotype,but defailed morphological analysis shows a difference among the karyotypes of the different species.Within the Alaudidae (Larks) Dipoid numbers range from 72 to 80,but it is probable that this largely reflects difficulties in accurately counting the number of microchromosomes.The Z-and W-chromosomes are the largest elements and are metacentric and submetacentric respectively.Centric fissinons or reciprocal translocations involving macro- and microchromosomes might have contributed to the reduction in the number of macroautosomes in these genera.
In this paper 13 restriction endonucleases,ApaⅠ,AvaⅠ,BamHⅠ,BclⅠ,BglⅠ,ClaⅠ,EcoRⅠ,EcoRⅤ,HpaⅠ,PstⅠ,PvuⅡ,ScaⅠ,XbaⅠ,were used to analyse the mitochondrial DNA of the precious Feas tree mouse.Restriction map of 8 enzymes was obtained by the double-digestion method.According to the RFLPs and molecular clock,the genetic relationship among the Feas tree mouse,the mouse and the rat was estimated.The result show that the Feas tree mouse is closer to the rat,and that the divergence time between them is 15-20×10 years.
The water content of eggs,yolk,posthatching yolk and hatchlings averaged for 68.87%,61.47%,60.75% and 76.43% respectively.The dry mass of eggs,yolk,hatchlings and posthatching yolk averaged for 2.2915±0.2101 g,1.3071±0.2913 g,1.2305±0.2994 g and 0.2681±0.0241 g,respectively.The lipid content of them averaged for 18.03%,31.76%,19.30% and 32.10%,respectively.The energy value of yolk,posthatching yolk,hatchlings averaged for 6.71 kcal/g DM,6.75 kcal/g DM and 4.10 kcal/g DM.The utilization coefficient of energy of the yolk was about 77.54%.Under the condition of fasting food,both the fresh mass of posthatching yolk and the size of yolk scar in the hachlings showed the negative linear regression correlation with time.The yolk scar and posthatching yolk disappeared at the 9th and the 15th day after hatching respectively.
The study was conducted at Haibei Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem,Academia Sinica,during breeding seasons of 1987-1989.The development of thermoregulation during the nestling period in three species were examined.The three species have different type-nest.They are Houned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) nesting on ground and open,Twite (Acanthis flavirostris) nesting in shrub and open,and Hums Ground Jay (Pseudopodoces humilis) nesting in burrow and close.There were two developmental;modes in the process of a striking transition from an essentially poiklothermic condition to a state of homeothermy during the nestling period in three nestling species.The Twite was sharp mode,whereas the Hounded Lark and Hums Ground Jay were gradual mode.There was a optimun growth temperature in Houned Larkes at 35℃ that at which temperature the metabolism rates of nestlings during the developmental period did not vary with age increasing.
1994, 15(3): 59-64.
The major lipid reserves were studied for the skink Eumeces chinensiscollected from a field in Hangzhou.The skinks were divided into five groups,I.e.March,April,May,fast,and fed-up groups.Data collected over a three-year period indicated that there were significant differences in fatbody indices,liver indices,and lipid contents of carcass,tail,and liver among skinks of different groups.Lipid reserves were reduced from the time of emergence from winter dormancy to the breeding season.The most important lipid reserves of the skink were tail and abdominal fatbody,because the most active lipid storage and utilization occurred at the two sites.In addition,the two sites alone comprised most of the standing lipids in an individual.The fast skinks had apparently higher ash contents but much lower ash uncorrected caloric values of lean carcass and lean tail than the fed-up individuals.No obvious differences in ash-free caloric values of lean carcass and lean tail were found between fast and fed-up skinks.There were relatively slight differences in ash content and caloric value of liver between fast and fed-up skinks.One of the major reasons which put the fast skinks to death was the exhaustion of stored materials.When skinks were allowed to feed freely on larvae of Tenebrio molitor,all major lipid reserves could rapidly store lipids.
Total isoflavones extracted from red clover were supplemented in the diets (4.38 mg/kg feed) of male Redbro broilers (45-56 days of age,n=15).Body weight gain of treated male chickens increased by 5.1%,feed conversion increased by 9.2%.Slaughter results showed that abdominal fat pad and ratio of abdominal fat pat to carcass weight decreased significantly,whereas comb weight,testis weight increased.The analysis of correlation coefficient between comb.testis and body weight,the observation of paraffin sections of testis and the radioimmunoassay (RIA) of the serum testosterone levels indicated that the total isoflavons could elevate serum testosterone levels and promote the development of the reproductive organs of male broiler chickens.
The substrate specificities of TMVFg (a fibrinogenase from Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus venom),OhS1 (a fibrinogenase from Ophiophagus hannah venom) and sv-PA (a specific plasminogen activator from Trimeresurus stefnegeri venom) on five chromogenic substrates were studied.Further,We studied the effects of these venom serine proteases on purified blood coagulation factors,like factor Ⅹ,prothrombin,plasminogen and protein C.The comparison studies were dealed with other venom serine proteases,like Bothrops atrox venom thrombin-like enzyme (Batroxobin),Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix venom protein C activator (ACC-C) and Vipera russelli venom factor V activator (RVV-V),and also with trypsin,thrombin,urokinase.Immunochemical study by ELISA proved that anti-sv-PA antibodies cross-reacted with other venom serine proteases but did not cross react with thrombin,urokinase and t-PA.We also compared the sequences of these serine proteases.Based on the results of substrate specificity,immuno-chemistry and sequence comparasion,the paper give the discussion on the structure function relationship of these serine proteases.
1994, 15(3): 81-86.
The expression of surface IgD on murine splenic B cells and the regulation of sIgD expression by different stimuli were studied in this paper.The results demonstrated that splenic B cells form two major populations.The high-density small splenic B cells have the phenotype of sIgD[high] and sIgD[low] B cells fall into low-density large population.Activation of resting B cells with LPS and anti-IgM induces differences in the level of IgD.Stimulation of resting B cells with LPS decreases the level of sIgD,but sIgD remains high after anti-IgM stimulation.Additional stimulation of Ril-6 following anti-IgM stimulation can lead to decrease the level of sIgD.Taking those together,we conclude that the expression of sIgD goes down following B cell activation.
Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys were trapped in their natural habitat,and transported by alleviating stress by drug.We successfully kept these animals in captivity for 14 months for 3 females (2 adults and one 2.5-year-old juvenile),6 months for 2 males (1 subadult and one 2-year-old juvenile),and 80 months for a yearling female.All animals were in good health condition.The body weights of adults were somewhat increased or stable,and somatic growth for the young seemed to be normal.Tuberculin tests gave a negative result,and no pathogenetic bacteria were found in their digestive and respiratory tracts.The animals were experimentally fed by the leave,flower,or fruit of different plants,and vegetables available in Kunming,and 56 species-parts were chosen.Some of the species-parts were later used as their diet.The number of food items chosen is much larger than that reported for the monkey population in the wild where the structure of vegetation is relatively simple.