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      2017, Volume 38 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Zoological Research. 2017, 38 (2): 55-114.  
    Abstract ( 149 )   RICH HTML PDF (14308KB) ( 744 )
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    Review
    The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes
    Jing Wang, Zhen-Bao Ma, Zhen-Ling Zeng, Xue-Wen Yang, Ying Huang, Jian-Hua Liu
    ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 2017, 38 (2): 55-80.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.003
    Abstract ( 427 )   RICH HTML PDF (2143KB) ( 826 )

    Antimicrobial resistance is an urgent global health challenge in human and veterinary medicine. Wild animals are not directly exposed to clinically relevant antibiotics; however, antibacterial resistance in wild animals has been increasingly reported worldwide in parallel to the situation in human and veterinary medicine. This underlies the complexity of bacterial resistance in wild animals and the possible interspecies transmission between humans, domestic animals, the environment, and wildlife. This review summarizes the current data on expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase, and colistin resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolates of wildlife origin. The aim of this review is to better understand the important role of wild animals as reservoirs and vectors in the global dissemination of crucial clinical antibacterial resistance. In this regard, continued surveillance is urgently needed worldwide.

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    Reports
    Food restriction affects maternal investment but not neonate phenotypes in a viviparous lizard
    Yang Wang, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Liang Ma, Shu-Ran Li, Wei-Guo Du
    ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 2017, 38 (2): 81-87.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.011
    Abstract ( 214 )   RICH HTML PDF (217KB) ( 2632 )

    Food availability significantly affects an animal's energy metabolism, and thus its phenotype, survival, and reproduction. Maternal and offspring responses to food conditions are critical for understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution of a species. In this study, we conducted food manipulation experiments in field enclosures to identify the effect of food restriction on female reproductive traits and postpartum body condition, as well as on hatchling phenotypes, in a lacertid viviparous lizard from the Inner Mongolian desert steppe of China. Females under low-food availability treatment (LFT) had poorer immune function and body condition compared with those under high-food availability treatment (HFT). The food availability treatments significantly affected the litter size and litter mass of the females, but not their gestation period in captivity or brood success, or the body size, sprint speed, and sex ratio of the neonates. Females from the LFT group had smaller litter sizes and, therefore, lower litter mass than those from the HFT group. These results suggest that female racerunners facing food restriction lay fewer offspring with unchanged body size and locomotor performance, and incur a cost in the form of poor postpartum body condition and immune function. The flexibility of maternal responses to variable food availability represents an important life strategy that could enhance the resistance of lizards to unpredictable environmental change.

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    Comparative study of the transfection efficiency of commonly used viral vectors in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) brains
    Shi-Hao Wu, Zhi-Xing Liao, Joshua D. Rizak, Na Zheng, Lin-Heng Zhang, Hen Tang, Xiao-Bin He, Yang Wu, Xia-Ping He, Mei-Feng Yang, Zheng-Hui Li, Dong-Dong Qin, Xin-Tian Hu
    ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 2017, 38 (2): 88-95.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.015
    Abstract ( 296 )   RICH HTML PDF (1959KB) ( 635 )

    Viral vector transfection systems are among the simplest of biological agents with the ability to transfer genes into the central nervous system. In brain research, a series of powerful and novel gene editing technologies are based on these systems. Although many viral vectors are used in rodents, their full application has been limited in non-human primates. To identify viral vectors that can stably and effectively express exogenous genes within non-human primates, eleven commonly used recombinant adeno-associated viral and lentiviral vectors, each carrying a gene to express green or red fluorescence, were injected into the parietal cortex of four rhesus monkeys. The expression of fluorescent cells was used to quantify transfection efficiency. Histological results revealed that recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors, especially the serotype 2/9 coupled with the cytomegalovirus, human synapsin I, or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II promoters, and lentiviral vector coupled with the human ubiquitin C promoter, induced higher expression of fluorescent cells, representing high transfection efficiency. This is the first comparison of transfection efficiencies of different viral vectors carrying different promoters and serotypes in non-human primates (NHPs). These results can be used as an aid to select optimal vectors to transfer exogenous genes into the central nervous system of non-human primates.

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    Dynamic changes in DNA demethylation in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain during postnatal development and aging
    Shu Wei, Hai-Rong Hua, Qian-Quan Chen, Ying Zhang, Fei Chen, Shu-Qing Li, Fan Li, Jia-Li Li
    ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 2017, 38 (2): 96-102.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.013
    Abstract ( 217 )   RICH HTML PDF (2497KB) ( 504 )

    Brain development and aging are associated with alterations in multiple epigenetic systems, including DNA methylation and demethylation patterns. Here, we observed that the levels of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzyme-mediated active DNA demethylation products were dynamically changed and involved in postnatal brain development and aging in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). The levels of 5hmC in multiple anatomic structures showed a gradual increase throughout postnatal development, whereas a significant decrease in 5hmC was found in several brain regions in aged tree shrews, including in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, but not the cerebellum. Active changes in Tet mRNA levels indicated that TET2 and TET3 predominantly contributed to the changes in 5hmC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the dynamic changes in 5hmC levels in tree shrew brains during postnatal development and aging processes.

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    Characterization of cyclophilin D in freshwater pearl mussel (Hyriopsis schlegelii)
    Xiu-Xiu Liu, Cheng-Yuan Wang, Chun Luo, Jun-Qing Sheng, Di Wu, Bei-Juan Hu, Jun-Hua Wang, Yi-Jiang Hong
    ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 2017, 38 (2): 103-109.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.018
    Abstract ( 167 )   RICH HTML PDF (668KB) ( 436 )

    Cyclophilin D (referred to as HsCypD) was obtained from the freshwater pearl mussel (Hyriopsis schlegelii). The full-length cDNA was 2 671 bp, encoding a protein consisting of 367 amino acids. HsCypD was determined to be a hydrophilic intracellular protein with 10 phosphorylation sites and four tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, but no signal peptide. The core sequence region YKGCIFHRIIKDFMVQGG is highly conserved in vertebrates and invertebrates. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that CypD from all species had a common origin, and HsCypD had the closest phylogenetic relationship with CypD from Lottia gigantea. The constitutive mRNA expression levels of HsCypD exhibited tissue-specific patterns, with the highest level detected in the intestines, followed by the gonads, and the lowest expression found in the hemocytes.

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    FasParser: a package for manipulating sequence data
    Yan-Bo Sun
    ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 2017, 38 (2): 110-112.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.017
    Abstract ( 573 )   RICH HTML PDF (526KB) ( 971 )

    A computer software package called ‘FasParser’ was developed for manipulating sequence data. It can be used on personal computers to perform series of analyses, including counting and viewing differences between two sequences at both DNA and codon levels, identifying overlapping regions between two alignments, sorting of sequences according to their IDs or lengths, concatenating sequences of multiple loci for a particular set of samples, translating nucleotide sequences to amino acids, and constructing alignments in several different formats, as well as some extracting and filtrating of data for a particular FASTA file. Majority of these functions can be run in a batch mode, which is very useful for analyzing large data sets. This package can be used by a broad audience, and is designed for researchers that do not have programming experience in sequence analyses. The GUI version of FasParser can be downloaded from https://github.com/Sun-Yanbo/FasParser, free of charge.

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    Author guidelines
    Author guidelines for submitting manuscripts to Zoological Research
    ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 2017, 38 (2): 113-114.  
    Abstract ( 89 )   RICH HTML PDF (93KB) ( 197 )
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    Call for papers
    Call for papers of the special issue on Animal Models and Infectious Diseases
    ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 2017, 38 (2): 0-0.  
    Abstract ( 92 )   RICH HTML PDF (380KB) ( 183 )
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2017, Volume 38 Issue 2