The interaction of morphine and cholinergic system was shown in previous studies. In the present study, we investigated whether morphine would interact with the cholinergic antagonists, scopolamine and atropine in a Y-maze spatial recognition memory. Pre-test treatments of morphine (5, 1.5, 0.5 mg/kg), scopolamine (1, 0.1 mg/kg), atropine (0.5, 0.1 mg/kg) were used in the experiments, relatively high or low doses were paired respectively as co-administration measures. The results showed that co-administration of morphine 0.5 mg/kg + scopolamine 0.1 mg/kg and morphine 0.5 mg/kg + atropine 0.1 mg/kg disturbed the inspective exploratory behavior (percent of arm duration) but not the inquisitive behavior (percent of arm visits) of the spatial memory retrieval, while the drugs didn’t cause amnesia when single administered of the concerned low doses. Distinct interaction was found between scopolamine and morphine on increasing locomotor activity.
Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) distribute in a restricted area of the TransHimalayas between the Mekong and Yangtze River, at 26PoP14’N8722;29PoP20’N and 99PoP15’E8722;99PoP37’E. There are about 1 700 individuals in 15 groups remained in the habitat between 4 200 (north) 8722;2 600 m (south) asl. The Milaka group is the northernmost range of the species with about 50 individuals in Mangkang county of Tibet. Based on our field survey and previous reports, we identified the fir forest and the mixed conifer forest as suitable habitat for the monkeys. Summer grazing lands and farmlands, which were made by local people’s cutting and burning in the fir forest at the high and low altitude belt, are replacing fir forest. To evaluate the status of the monkeys’ habitat, we employed GIS and RS to identify the habitat types with Landsat TM satellite imagery in winter of 1986 and 2006 respectively. The work resulted in: 1) the size of summer grazing lands, farmlands, and fir forest was 4 900 hmP2P, 3 300 hmP2P and 13 600 hmP2P in 2006 respectively; 2) during the past 20 years (19868722;2006), the size of fir forest decreased by 15.5% (2 500 hmP2P), summer grazing lands and farmlands increased by 58.1% (1 800 hmP2P) and 17.8% (500 hmP2P) respectively; 3) the habitat of the species was more fragmented, the number of habitat patches increased by 75.6%, the mean size of forest patches decreased by 51.8% (from 15.3 to 7.4 hmP2P), the largest patch index decreased by 54.7%; the patch richness remained the same, but the Shannon’s diversity index and the Shannon’s evenness index increased by 4.0%, respectively; and 4) the size of fir forest negatively correlated with villager population (r =8722;1.000), but the size of summer grazing lands and farmlands positively correlated with villager population (r = 1.000). These indicate the habitat lost and fragmentation for the Milaka group increased sharply during the past 20 years and it is the result of population growth and the most employment of traditional modes.
The color preference of the Parasite Wasps of Ericerus pela was studied in the white wax garden. Eight kinds of color boards (red，yellow，blue，blue-green，green，grey brown，white and black) were used to attract the parasite wasps of Ericerus pela. The active regularity of the parasite wasps E. pela were observed during four periods per day ( 6：00－9：00，9：00－12：00，12：00－15：00 and 15：00－18：00 ) at three heights of the host trees ( the crown， middle and lower part) with four directions ( east，south，west and north) during sunny，cloudy and rainy days. The results showed that three dominant species of the parasite wasps of E. pela， Microterys ericeri Ishii， Metaphycus ericeri Xu et Jiang and Microterys sinicus Jiang had obvious preference to the yellow color. The next color preference in turn were blue，blue-green，green，white，grey brown，red and black. Numbers of the trapped parasite wasps were various in different parts of the host trees. The largest number was in the middle of the host tree，next was in their lower part， and the fewest number was in their crown. The percentage of parasite wasps was 52.21%，39.80% and 7.99%， respectively. The activities of the parasite wasps were closely related to distribution of E. pela on the host trees. There was not obvious difference of the wasp activities in different directions. An active climax occurred from 6：00－9：00 and then appeared from 15：00－18：00. Parasite wasps of E. pela were more active in sunny days rather than cloudy and rainy days.
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