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A new species of the genus Amolops (Anura: Ranidae) from high-altitude Sichuan, southwestern China, with a discussion on the taxonomic status of Amolops kangtingensis
Liang Fei, Chang-Yuan Ye, Yu-Fan Wang, Ke Jiang
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2017, 38 (3): 138-145.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.022
GCH1 plays a role in the high-altitude adaptation of Tibetans
Yong-Bo Guo, Yao-Xi He, Chao-Ying Cui, Ouzhuluobu, Baimakangzhuo, Duojizhuoma, Dejiquzong, Bianba, Yi Peng, Cai-juan Bai, Gonggalanzi, Yong-Yue Pan, Qula, Kangmin, Cirenyangji, Baimayangji, Wei Guo, Yangla, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Wang-Shan Zheng, Shu-Hua Xu, Hua Chen, Sheng-Guo Zhao, Yuan Cai, Shi-Ming Liu, Tian-Yi Wu, Xue-Bin Qi, Bing Su
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2017, 38 (3): 155-162.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.037
Abstract ( 67 )   PDF (1868KB) (374)

Tibetans are well adapted to high-altitude hypoxia. Previous genome-wide scans have reported many candidate genes for this adaptation, but only a few have been studied. Here we report on a hypoxia gene (GCH1, GTP-cyclohydrolase I), involved in maintaining nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) function and normal blood pressure, that harbors many potentially adaptive variants in Tibetans. We resequenced an 80.8 kb fragment covering the entire gene region of GCH1 in 50 unrelated Tibetans. Combined with previously published data, we demonstrated many GCH1 variants showing deep divergence between highlander Tibetans and lowlander Han Chinese. Neutrality tests confirmed a signal of positive Darwinian selection on GCH1 in Tibetans. Moreover, association analysis indicated that the Tibetan version of GCH1 was significantly associated with multiple physiological traits in Tibetans, including blood nitric oxide concentration, blood oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin concentration. Taken together, we propose that GCH1 plays a role in the genetic adaptation of Tibetans to high altitude hypoxia.

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EP300 contributes to high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans by regulating nitric oxide production
Wang-Shan Zheng, Yao-Xi He, Chao-Ying Cui, Ouzhuluobu, Dejiquzong, Yi Peng, Cai-Juan Bai, Duojizhuoma, Gonggalanzi, Bianba, Baimakangzhuo, Yong-Yue Pan, Qula, Kangmin, Cirenyangji, Baimayangji, Wei Guo, Yangla, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Yong-Bo Guo, Shu-Hua Xu, Hua Chen, Sheng-Guo Zhao, Yuan Cai, Shi-Ming Liu, Tian-Yi Wu, Xue-Bin Qi, Bing Su
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2017, 38 (3): 163-170.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.036
Abstract ( 60 )   PDF (498KB) (298)

The genetic adaptation of Tibetans to high altitude hypoxia likely involves a group of genes in the hypoxic pathway, as suggested by earlier studies. To test the adaptive role of the previously reported candidate gene EP300 (histone acetyltransferase p300), we conducted resequencing of a 108.9 kb gene region of EP300 in 80 unrelated Tibetans. The allele-frequency and haplotype-based neutrality tests detected signals of positive Darwinian selection on EP300 in Tibetans, with a group of variants showing allelic divergence between Tibetans and lowland reference populations, including Han Chinese, Europeans, and Africans. Functional prediction suggested the involvement of multiple EP300 variants in gene expression regulation. More importantly, genetic association tests in 226 Tibetans indicated significant correlation of the adaptive EP300 variants with blood nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Collectively, we propose that EP300 harbors adaptive variants in Tibetans, which might contribute to high-altitude adaptation through regulating NO production.

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Creating animal models, why not use the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)?
Yong-Gang Yao
Zoological Research    2017, 38 (3): 118-126.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.032
Abstract ( 54 )   PDF (541KB) (407)

The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a squirrel-like and rat-sized mammal, has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia, South and Southwest China and has many unique characteristics that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal. There have been many studies using the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) aimed at increasing our understanding of fundamental biological mechanisms and for the modeling of human diseases and therapeutic responses. The recent release of a publicly available annotated genome sequence of the Chinese tree shrew and its genome database ( has offered a solid base from which it is possible to elucidate the basic biological properties and create animal models using this species. The extensive characterization of key factors and signaling pathways in the immune and nervous systems has shown that tree shrews possess both conserved and unique features relative to primates. Hitherto, the tree shrew has been successfully used to create animal models for myopia, depression, breast cancer, alcohol-induced or non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to name a few. The recent successful genetic manipulation of the tree shrew has opened a new avenue for the wider usage of this animal in biomedical research. In this opinion paper, I attempt to summarize the recent research advances that have used the Chinese tree shrew, with a focus on the new knowledge obtained by using the biological properties identified using the tree shrew genome, a proposal for the genome-based approach for creating animal models, and the genetic manipulation of the tree shrew. With more studies using this species and the application of cutting-edge gene editing techniques, the tree shrew will continue to be under the spot light as a viable animal model for investigating the basis of many different human diseases.

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Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) as a novel laboratory disease animal model
Ji Xiao, Rong Liu, Ce-Shi Chen
Zoological Research    2017, 38 (3): 127-137.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.033
Abstract ( 48 )   HTML   PDF (224KB) (483)

The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is a promising laboratory animal that possesses a closer genetic relationship to primates than to rodents. In addition, advantages such as small size, easy breeding, and rapid reproduction make the tree shrew an ideal subject for the study of human disease. Numerous tree shrew disease models have been generated in biological and medical studies in recent years. Here we summarize current tree shrew disease models, including models of infectious diseases, cancers, depressive disorders, drug addiction, myopia, metabolic diseases, and immune-related diseases. With the success of tree shrew transgenic technology, this species will be increasingly used in biological and medical studies in the future.

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Reconsidering the distribution of gray wolves
Greger Larson
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2017, 38 (3): 115-116.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.021
Abstract ( 41 )   PDF (106KB) (372)
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Pulmonary immune cells and inflammatory cytokine dysregulation are associated with mortality of IL-1R1-/-mice infected with influenza virus (H1N1)
Lei Guo, Yan-Cui Wang, Jun-Jie Mei, Ruo-Tong Ning, Jing-Jing Wang, Jia-Qi Li, Xi Wang, Hui-Wen Zheng, Hai-Tao Fan, Long-Ding Liu
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2017, 38 (3): 146-154.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.035
Abstract ( 34 )   PDF (3292KB) (263)

Respirovirus infection can cause viral pneumonia and acute lung injury (ALI). The interleukin-1 (IL-1) family consists of proinflammatory cytokines that play essential roles in regulating immune and inflammatory responses in vivo. IL-1 signaling is associated with protection against respiratory influenza virus infection by mediation of the pulmonary anti-viral immune response and inflammation. We analyzed the infiltration lung immune leukocytes and cytokines that contribute to inflammatory lung pathology and mortality of fatal H1N1 virus-infected IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) deficient mice. Results showed that early innate immune cells and cytokine/chemokine dysregulation were observed with significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration and IL-6, TNF-α, G-CSF, KC, and MIP-2 cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected IL-1R1-/- mice in comparison with that of wild type infected mice. The adaptive immune response against the H1N1 virus in IL-1R1-/- mice was impaired with downregulated anti-viral Th1 cell, CD8+ cell, and antibody functions, which contributes to attenuated viral clearance. Histological analysis revealed reduced lung inflammation during early infection but severe lung pathology in late infection in IL-1R1-/- mice compared with that in WT infected mice. Moreover, the infected IL-1R1-/- mice showed markedly reduced neutrophil generation in bone marrow and neutrophil recruitment to the inflamed lung. Together, these results suggest that IL-1 signaling is associated with pulmonary anti-influenza immune response and inflammatory lung injury, particularly via the influence on neutrophil mobilization and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production.

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Genes for the high life: New genetic variants point to positive selection for high altitude hypoxia in Tibetans
Nina G. Jablonski
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2017, 38 (3): 117-117.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.031
Abstract ( 28 )   PDF (90KB) (317)
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Zoological Research    2017, 38 (3): 115-170.   DOI:
Abstract ( 25 )   PDF (72637KB) (444)
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Zoological Research    2018, 39 (2): 58-129.   DOI:
Abstract ( 3 )   PDF (16420KB) (50)
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Type I interferon receptor knockout mice as models for infection of highly pathogenic viruses with outbreak potential
Gary Wong, Xiang-Guo Qiu
Zoological Research    2018, 39 (1): 3-14.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.052
Abstract ( 3 )   PDF (429KB) (201)
Due to their inability to generate a complete immune response, mice knockout for type I interferon (IFN) receptors (Ifnar–/–) are more susceptible to viral infections, and are thus commonly used for pathogenesis studies. This mouse model has been used to study many diseases caused by highly pathogenic viruses from many families, including the Flaviviridae, Filoviridae, Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Henipaviridae, and Togaviridae. In this review, we summarize the findings from these animal studies, and discuss the pros and cons of using this model versus other known methods for studying pathogenesis in animals.
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Overview of the improvement of the ring-stage survival assay-a novel phenotypic assay for the detection of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum
Jie Zhang, Guo-Hua Feng, Chun-Yan Zou, Pin-Can Su, Huai-E Liu, Zhao-Qing Yang
Zoological Research    2017, 38 (6): 317-320.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.075
Abstract ( 3 )   PDF (250KB) (190)
Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum threatens the remarkable efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies worldwide. Thus, greater insight into the resistance mechanism using monitoring tools is essential. The ring-stage survival assay is used for phenotyping artemisinin-resistance or decreased artemisinin sensitivity. Here, we review the progress of this measurement assay and explore its limitations and potential applications.
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Why China is important in advancing the field of primatology
Paul A. Garber
Zoological Research    0, (): 85-.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.012
Zoological Research    2018, 39 (1): 1-57.   DOI:
Abstract ( 2 )   PDF (51564KB) (41)
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2018 New Year Address of Zoological Research
Yong-Gang Yao, Xue-Long Jiang
Zoological Research    2018, 39 (1): 1-2.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.011
Abstract ( 1 )   PDF (257KB) (83)
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 Animal models for the study of hepatitis B virus infection
Wei-Na Guo, Bin Zhu, Ling Ai, Dong-Liang Yang, Bao-Ju Wang
Zoological Research    2018, 39 (1): 25-31.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.013
Biogeography of the Shimba Hills ecosystem herpetofauna in Kenya
Patrick K. Malonza, David M. Mulwa, Joash O. Nyamache, Georgina Jones
Zoological Research    2018, 39 (2): 97-104.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.048
Abstract ( 1 )   PDF (246KB) (163)
The Shimba Hills ecosystem along the south coast of Kenya is a key East African biodiversity hotspot. Historically, it is biogeographically assignable to the East African coastal biome. We examined the current Shimba Hills herpetofauna and their zoogeographical affinities to the coastal forests and nearby Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspots. The key studied sites included the Shimba Hills National Reserve, forest reserves, Kaya forests, and adjacent private land. Data on herpetofaunal richness were obtained from recent field surveys, literature, and specimens held at the National Museums of Kenya, Herpetology Section Collection, Nairobi. The Makadara, Mwele, and Longo-Mwagandi forests within the Shimba Hills National Reserve hosted the highest number of unique and rare species. Generally, the forest reserves and Kaya forests were important refuges for forest-associated species. On private land, Mukurumudzi Dam riparian areas were the best amphibian habitat and were host to three IUCN (Red List) Endangered-EN amphibian species, namely, Boulengerula changamwensis, Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus, and Afrixalus sylvaticus, as well as one snake species Elapsoidea nigra. Using herpetofauna as zoogeographic indicators, the Shimba Hills were determined to be at a crossroads between the coastal forests (13 endemic species) and the Eastern Arc Mountains (seven endemic species). Most of the Eastern Arc Mountains endemic species were from recent records, and thus more are likely to be found in the future. This ‘hybrid’ species richness pattern is attributable to the hilly topography of the Shimba Hills and their proximity to the Indian Ocean. This has contributed to the Shimba Hills being the richest herpetofauna area in Kenya, with a total of 89 and 36 reptile and amphibian species, respectively. Because of its unique zoogeography, the Shimba Hills ecosystem is undoubtedly a key biodiversity area for conservation investment.
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Zoological Research    2017, 38 (4): 171-212.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1 )   PDF (30540KB) (121)
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Animal models for filovirus infections
Vinayakumar Siragam, Gary Wong, Xiang-Guo Qiu
Zoological Research    2018, 39 (1): 15-24.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.053
Abstract ( 1 )   PDF (338KB) (162)
The family Filoviridae, which includes the genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus, contains some of the most pathogenic viruses in humans and non-human primates (NHPs), causing severe hemorrhagic fevers with high fatality rates. Small animal models against filoviruses using mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, and ferrets have been developed with the goal of screening candidate vaccines and antivirals, before testing in the gold standard NHP models. In this review, we summarize the different animal models used to understand filovirus pathogenesis, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each model with respect to filovirus disease research.
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In vivo genome editing thrives with diversified CRISPR technologies
Xun Ma, Avery Sum-Yu Wong, Hei-Yin Tam, Samuel Yung-Kin Tsui, Dittman Lai-Shun Chung, Bo Feng
Zoological Research    2018, 39 (2): 58-71.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.012
Abstract ( 0 )   PDF (244KB) (406)
Prokaryotic type II adaptive immune systems have been developed into the versatile CRISPR technology, which has been widely applied in site-specific genome editing and has revolutionized biomedical research due to its superior efficiency and flexibility. Recent studies have greatly diversified CRISPR technologies by coupling it with various DNA repair mechanisms and targeting strategies. These new advances have significantly expanded the generation of genetically modified animal models, either by including species in which targeted genetic modification could not be achieved previously, or through introducing complex genetic modifications that take multiple steps and cost years to achieve using traditional methods. Herein, we review the recent developments and applications of CRISPR-based technology in generating various animal models, and discuss the everlasting impact of this new progress on biomedical research.
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Models and detection of spontaneous recurrent seizures in laboratory rodents
Bin Gu, Katherine A. Dalton
Zoological Research    2017, 38 (4): 171-179.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.042
Abstract ( 0 )   PDF (933KB) (223)
Epilepsy, characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), is a serious and common neurological disorder afflicting an estimated 1% of the population worldwide. Animal experiments, especially those utilizing small laboratory rodents, remain essential to understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying epilepsy and to prevent, diagnose, and treat this disease. While much attention has been focused on epileptogenesis in animal models of epilepsy, there is little discussion on SRS, the hallmark of epilepsy. This is in part due to the technical difficulties of rigorous SRS detection. In this review, we comprehensively summarize both genetic and acquired models of SRS and discuss the methodology used to monitor and detect SRS in mice and rats.
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Five newly recorded Cyprinid fish (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) in Myanmar
Tao Qin, Zhi-Ying Chen, Lu-Lu Xu, Paing Zaw, Yunn Mi Mi Kyaw, Kyaw Win Maung, Xiao-Yong Chen
Zoological Research    2017, 38 (5): 300-309.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.063
Zoological Research    2017, 38 (6): 317-458.   DOI:
Abstract ( 0 )   PDF (26580KB) (59)
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the leaf muntjac (Muntiacus putaoensis) and phylogenetics of the genus Muntiacus
Guo-Gang Li, Ming-Xia Zhang, Kyaw Swa, Kyaw-Win Maung, Rui-Chang Quan
Zoological Research    2017, 38 (5): 310-316.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.058
Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) infected with SIVmac239
Tian-Zhang Song, Ming-Xu Zhang, Yu-Jie Xia, Yu Xiao, Wei Pang, Yong-Tang Zheng
Zoological Research    2018, 39 (1): 42-51.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.015
Kidney disease models: tools to identify mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets
Yin-Wu Bao, Yuan Yuan, Jiang-Hua Chen, Wei-Qiang Lin
Zoological Research    2018, 39 (2): 72-86.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.055
Abstract ( 0 )   PDF (392KB) (256)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are worldwide public health problems affecting millions of people and have rapidly increased in prevalence in recent years. Due to the multiple causes of renal failure, many animal models have been developed to advance our understanding of human nephropathy. Among these experimental models, rodents have been extensively used to enable mechanistic understanding of kidney disease induction and progression, as well as to identify potential targets for therapy. In this review, we discuss AKI models induced by surgical operation and drugs or toxins, as well as a variety of CKD models (mainly genetically modified mouse models). Results from recent and ongoing clinical trials and conceptual advances derived from animal models are also explored.
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Development and characterization of a guinea pig model for Marburg virus
Gary Wong, Wen-Guang Cao, Shi-Hua He, Zi-Rui Zhang, Wen-Jun Zhu, Estella Moffat, Hideki Ebihara, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Xiang-Guo Qiu
Zoological Research    2018, 39 (1): 32-41.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.054
Zoological Research    2017, 38 (5): 213-316.   DOI:
Abstract ( 0 )   PDF (62931KB) (72)
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Comment on “The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes”
Mashkoor Mohsin, Shahbaz Raza
Zoological Research    2017, 38 (4): 211-211.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.023
Abstract ( 0 )   PDF (91KB) (119)
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Response to Comment on “The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes”
Jing Wang, Zhen-Bao Ma, Zhen-Ling Zeng, Xue-Wen Yang, Ying Huang, Jian-Hua Liu
Zoological Research    2017, 38 (4): 212-212.   DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.024
Abstract ( 0 )   PDF (91KB) (107)
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