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A New Species of the Genus Rana From Yunnan
YANG Da-tong,LI Si-min
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1980, 1 (2): 261-264.   DOI:
Abstract ( 975 )   PDF (81KB) (1879)
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Insect Antimicrobial Peptides: Structures, Properties and Gene Regulation
WANG Yi-Peng,LAI Ren
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2010, 31 (1): 27-34.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.01027
Abstract ( 2611 )   PDF (339KB) (2653)
Insect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important group of insect innate immunity effectors. Insect AMPs are cationic and contain less than 100 amino acid residues. According to structure, insect AMPs can be divided into a limited number of families. The diverse antimicrobial spectrum of insect AMPs may indicate different modes of action. Research on the model organism Drosophila indicate that insect AMPs gene regulation involves multiple signaling pathways and a large number of signaling molecules.
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Studies on Experimental Infection of Tree Shrew With Herpes Simplex Virus Type Ⅱ
DAI Chang-bo et al.
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1985, 6 (3): 258-276.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1035 )   PDF (42KB) (1179)
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Distribution of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Immunostaining Cells in Digestive Tracts of Different kind Vertebrates
TANG Xiao-wen,ZHEN Yi-shou
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1991, 12 (3): 293-298.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1717 )   PDF (457KB) (1280)
The distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) immunostaining cells in digestive tracts of vertebrates containing Ophiocephalus argus,Bufo bufo gargarizans,Clemmys mutica,Melopsittacus undulatus and Mus musculus albula were studied by peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method.The immunostaining cells were localized in the gastrointestinal tracts of above animal (except the gaster of Melopsittacus undulatus,the intestine and the cardia of gaster of Ophiocephalus argus).It first were localized in the esophagus of Clemmys mutica and B.b.gargarizans.Generally,the density of 5-HT immunostaining cells in the gastrointestinal tracts were the highest in the gasters and moderate in the duodenum and the large intestine,and the lowest in small intestine.The 5-HT immunostaining cells were visualized to distribute between the epithelum cells of the mucosa or gland.The positive cells usually had one or more processes which contained 5-HT immunostaining substance.Some processes were reached into lumen surface of the gland or intestine.Some were extended between other epithelum cells or even reached into lamina propria through the basal membrane.These results indicate that the 5-HT immunostaining cells in digestive tracts could release 5-HT by both endocrine and exocrine ways.
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Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphisms in animals:A Review
ZHANG Ya-ping,SHI Li-ming
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1992, 13 (3): 289-298.   DOI:
Abstract ( 2002 )   PDF (445KB) (2027)
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Study on Fishery Biodiversity and Its Conservation in Laizhou Bay and Yellow River Estuary
DENG Jing-yao,JIN Xian-shi
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2000, 21 (1): 76-82.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1910 )   PDF (258KB) (1574)
Laizhou Bay (37°10′-38°20′N,118°30′-120°30′E) is not only an important spawning site and habitat for fishery resources in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea,but also a traditional fishing site.The results from pair-trawl surveys in different seasons in the area indicate that fishs abundance,diversity and dominance have changed dramatically.The mean catches per haul are 258,117,77.5 and 8.5 kg/h in 1959,1982,1992-1993 and 1998,respectively.The largesized demersal fish,such as largehead hairtail (Trichiurus haumela) and small yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena polyactis) have been replaced by halffin anchovy (Setipinna taty),anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) etc.since the 1980s.The community structure of fishery resources has apparently varied.The continuous releasing penaeid shrimp (Penaeus chinensis) in large-scale has caused the decrease of genetic heterozygosity in the wild stock.The corresponding protection measures to inhabiting environment and biodiversity are suggested based on the analyses of variation of main fishery resources.
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Sexual Dimorphism in Body Size and Head Size and Female Reproduction in A Viviparous Skink,Sphenomorphus indicus
JI Xiang,DU Wei-Guo
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2000, 21 (5): 349-354.   DOI:
Abstract ( 2270 )   PDF (227KB) (1429)
We report data on sexual dimorphism in body size and head size and female reproduction for Sphenomorphus indicus from Hangzhou,Zhejiang,eastern China.The skink is sexually dimorphic in both body and head size,and females are larger in body size but smaller in head size.Except for neonates that did not exhibit sexual dimorphism in head size,males had larger heads than did females.When SVL was kept constant,we found that juvenile and adult males did not differ in head size but juvenile females had larger heads than did adult females.Heads of neonates were relatively the largest,implying the importance of larger heads for an individuals ability to use larger prey.The smallest reproductive female was 67.7 mm SVL,and all females larger than this size produced a single litter per season.Litter size,litter mass and neonate mass varied from 3 to 11 (mean=7.2) offspring,1.30 to 5.19 (mean=3.34) g and 0.36 to 0.58 (mean=0.48) g,respectively.Litter size determined by counting the number of yolked follicles and oviductal eggs outnumbered that by counting the number of neonates by 1.0 offspring.Neonate mass was independent of maternal SVL,and litter size was independent of maternal conditions.Both litter size and litter mass were positively correlated with maternal SVL,and there was a marginally positive correlation between relative clutch mass and maternal SVL.An inverse relationship between neonate mass and litter size was found in S.indicus,suggesting a trade-off between the two variables.Our data indicate that selection should favor larger body size in S.indicus,as females can increase their reproductive output through production of more offspring by increasing body size.Moreover,adult females partition relatively less resources into head growth but more into carcass growth,thereby leaving a larger space for producing more offspring.
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The Construction of Molecular Evolutionary Trees
LU Bao-zhong
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1993, 14 (2): 186-193.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1510 )   PDF (375KB) (1922)
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Ontogenetic Changes of Sexual Dimorphism in Head Size and Food Habit in Grass Lizard,Takydromus septentrionalis
ZHANG Yong-Pu,JI Xiang
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2000, 21 (3): 181-186.   DOI:
Abstract ( 2112 )   PDF (222KB) (1326)
Adult grass lizards,Takydromus septentrio-nalis,are similar in size (SVL) but sexually dimorphic in head size (males larger than females ) throughout its range.A comprehensive analysis on the ecological and evolutionary sources of sexual differences in growth and size of heads requires a detailed understanding of growth trajectories during ontogeny.In this study,we specifically quesioned at what point during ontogeny males and females diverge in head size:at birth,during juvenile growth,or as mature adults? Our results indicate that males and females begin to diverge in head size at birth,although the divergence in the newly emerged young is much less pronounced than that in adults.An ANCOVA indicates that adult females even have smaller heads than do juveniles (including the newly emerged young).This suggests that adult females partition less resources into head growth but more into carcass growth,thereby leaving a larger space for eggs so as to increase reproductive output.Lizards collected in different seasons,from different populations,and at different ontogenetic stages,in various degrees,differ in food niche width and breadth.However,no direct evidence shows a substantial contribution of the divergence in head size to the segregation of food niche between males and females.Our analyses support that sexual selection is the main evolutionary source of smaller heads in female T.septentrionalis.
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An Improved Method For Isolation of Animal Mitochondrial DNA
WANG Wen,SHI Li-ming
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1993, 14 (2): 197-198.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1726 )   PDF (89KB) (1330)
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Studies on Microsatellite Markers of Four Artificially Gynogenetic Families in Ornamental Carp
LIU Jing-xia,ZHOU Li,ZHAO Zhen-shan,GUI Jian-fang
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2002, 23 (2): 97-105.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1910 )   PDF (366KB) (2188)
Using 8 microsatellite markers of the poly (CA) type isolated from common carp by Crooijmans et al.(1997),we analyzed four artificially gynogenetic families of ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).In the four gynogenetic families,two originated from Kohaku strain,other two from Taisho and Showa respectively.Five individuals were randomly sampled from each artificially gynogenetic family.Electrophoretic patterns showed that the 8 pairs of microsatellite primers all reproducibly produced the well-identifiable and homologous DNA fragments.The number of alleles per marker varied from 1 to 11,and the size of alleles ranged from 68 bp to 264 bp.Abundant polymorphic DNA fragments among 20 individuals were observed in electrophoretic patterns produced by primers MFW4,MFW7,MFW19,MFW20,MFW23 and MFW24.The genetic polymorphism were observed between gynogenetic families and within intra-family individuals.The phenotypes of individuals of TaS and RW[1] differed from each other,and the average distances among TaS or RW[1] were 0.28.The analysis of alleles and genotypes revealed higher genetic diversity among individuals of the gynogenetic families.It suggested that each color strain of ornamental carp was selected through consistent hybridization between strains and the genomes of them are highly hybrid,so it cant produce pure lines only through one generation gynogenesis.The four artificially gynogenetic families produced in this study will offer necessary samples for further studying on genetic mechanism of body color types in ornamental carp,and the microsatellite markers will provide useful tools for marker-assisted selection breeding or gene map of ornamental carp.
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Isolation of Microsatellite Markers in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
WEI Dong-Wang,LOU Yun-Dong,SUN Xiao-Wen,SHEN Jun-Bao
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2001, 22 (3): 238-241.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1683 )   PDF (161KB) (1649)
A partial common carp genomic library was constructed.45 positive clones were isolated from screening about 2000 clones of the genomic library with a (CA) 15 probe labelled at the 5 end with γ[32]P-ATP.Sequencing of these clones was performed with automated sequencer,and 22 microsatellites were isolated.17 primers were designed based on unique sequences flanking each motif with the software Primer3.PCR on Cyprinus carpio haematopterus was carried out with these primers,and all gave expected bands.Annealing temperature of these primers was between 50 ℃ and 53 ℃.
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Isolation, Culture and Biological Characteristics of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells
DUO Shu-guang,WU Ying-ji *,LUO Fen-hua,BOU Shorgan
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2006, 27 (3): 299-305.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1896 )   PDF (1332KB) (2266)
Bovine mammary epithelial cells were isolated and purified by using collagenase digestion of the mammary gland tissue for the primary cell culture, and subsequently using trypsin-selected digestion of the cultured cells for cell purification. Morphological observation revealed that the cultured cells possessed the typical character of epithelial cells. Karyotyping analysis showed the normal chromosome number in cultured cells. The tissue-specific expression of cytokeratin 5 and 8 genes in mammary epithelial cells was identified by immunofluorescent cytochemical staining. The transcription of the betacasein gene was detected by RT-PCR, when the purified cells were induced with insulin, hydrocortisone and prolactin in the culture medium without serum. The above results indicate that the purified cells are mammary epithelial cells, which can transcript beta-casein mRNA in the induction condition.
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Phylogenetic Relationships of Cervinae Based on Sequence of Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene
LIU Xiang-hua,WANG Yi-quan,LIU Zhong-quan,Zhou Kai-ya
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2003, 24 (1): 27-33.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1446 )   PDF (271KB) (2234)
The phylogenetic relationships among and within genera Dama,Axis,Elaphurus,and Cervus in subfamily Cervinae remain controversial,particularly within genus Cervus.We analyzed the sequence of Cyt b gene of the genera,5 species of Cervus,and 6 subspecies of C.elaphus distributing in China.The results suggest that:Genus Axis might not be monophyletic and A.porcinus should be merged into Cervus.A close genetic relationship between Elaphurus and Cervus indicated that two taxa should be incorporated into the same genus,whereas the classification status of Dama dama still remained uncertain.Cervus,including Père David s deer and hog deer,comprised a monophyletic clade.Subspecies of China s C.elaphus,which derived from C.nippon,formed a monophyletic group.Among them,C.e.songaricus and C.e.sibiricus clustered together and diverged early.
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Microsatellites and Its Application
ZHANG Yun-Wu,ZHANG Ya-Ping,Oliver A.RYDER
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2001, 22 (4): 315-320.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1825 )   PDF (255KB) (2344)
Microsatellites are tandem repeats of short nucleotide motifs (1-5 bp long) dispersing widely and relatively evenly in eukaryotic genomes.The high degree of allelic diversity at each microsatellite locus provides ideal Mendelian markers for population and pedigree analysis.Understanding of microsatellite mutational m echanism will be helpful to appropriately use microsatellite markers for biological studies.Here we introduce the latest progress in microsatellite research,including its mutation,mutational mechanism,application (especially in relationship identification),as well as its pitfalls.
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The Bionomics of Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead and Its Utilization For the Control of Tobacco Aphid Myzus Persicae Sulzer
CHAO Wan-yuen,TING Ghui-ping,DONG Ta-tse,WANG Yuen-chen,CHANG Wen-lian
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1980, 1 (3): 405-415.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1339 )   PDF (426KB) (1537)
The tobacco aphid or peach aphid is the major insect pest of tobacco in Yunnan.The present paper deals with life cycle,habits and reproductive capacity of the braconid parasite of aphid (Aphidius gifuensis Ashmead).This parasite completes its life cycle in the laboratory at 25-27℃ between 9-13 days,in which the egg stage 1-2 days,the larval stage 4-5 days,the prepupal stage 1-2 days,and pupal stage 3-4 days.The longevity of adult fed with honey is 9 days.The average number of parasitized aphid was found to be about 127.6 by one female.The number of matural eggs in the ovary is with and average of 169.9,max.433.Liberation of the indigenous braconid parasite of aphid to control the tobacco aphid was proved to be highly effective through the laboratory and field experiments during 1976-1977 in Yuxi.In oder to determine the result of control,about 120,000 of braconid parasite of aphid have been released in 20 Mu of tobacco field in 1978.The result of field test showed that the percentage of parasitization was obviously increased from 0-95%,whereas that the population density of aphid decreased to lower levels after the liberation from 34.3 to 0.1 (average) per plant,and that for the control,the percentage of parasitization was gradully increased from 0.1 to 38.8.Whereas that the population density of the aphid obviously increased,from 33.2-51.2 average per plant,(maximum 440.5).The result was much better than the spraying of the poison,Roger,at a dilution of 1:1000.The mass rear of the Aphidius gifuensis Schmead has been reproted.
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Selectivity of Birds to Urban Woodlots
CHEN Shui-hua,DING Ping,FAN Zhong-yong,ZHENG Guang-mei
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2002, 23 (1): 31-38.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1684 )   PDF (317KB) (2352)
Urban woodlots are isolated as patches in urban matrix and possess the features of "habitat island".Moreover,their interior structures and landscape level structures are greatly modified by urbanization.We analyzed the relationships between the bird distribution and woodlot area,interior structures,distributions of microhabitat types,landscape level structures and human disturbance in 20 woodlots in Hangzhou city area.14 habitat variables and 14 microhabitat types were selected to test the relationships between the bird and habitat by Multivariate Regression Analysis and Correlation Analysis.The results indicate that bird species have a strong selectivity to the urban woodlots in Hangzhou,which is significantly correlated to not only the woodlot area but also many other habitat factors,such as the patch shape,vegetation density,microhabitat distribution,connectedness,isolation,surrounding landuse and human disturbance etc.It is the heterogeneity among the woodlots and the close association between the bird and habitat that result in the birds selective distributions.The results also indicate the importance of the conservation of special habitat and habitat diversity in maintenance of regional biodiversity.
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Assessment of Homozygosity in Gynogenetic Diploid Using Microsatellite Markers in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
ZHU Xiao-chen LIU Hai-jin ,* SUN Xiao-wen XUE Ling-ling MAO Lian-ju
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2006, 27 (1): 63-67.   DOI:
Abstract ( 2172 )   PDF (615KB) (2162)
Gynogenesis was thought to be a useful method to generate inbred lines in fish. In this study, analysis of 5-8 heterozygous loci in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was used to measure the increment of homozygosity in meiogynogenetic diploid (Meiotic-A & Meiotic-B) and mitogynogenetic diploid (Mitotic-A). The result showed all homozygosity in Mitotic-G1, while a high percentage of heterozygosity in Meiosis-A and Meiosis-B except Poli11TUF. The rate of heterozygosity in meiogynogenetic progenies at the locus of Poli9TUF, Poli9-8TUF, Poli11TUF, Poli13TUF, Poli23TUF, Poli30TUF, Poli123TUF and Poli130TUF were 1.000 0, 1.000 0, 0.194 4, 0.945 9, 0.861 1, 1.000 0, 0.777 8 and 0.800 0, respectively. The average recombination rate of these eight loci is 0.822 4. The high proportion of heterozygotes for seven loci demonstrates that it is not a practical method for producing homozygous inbred lines in the gynogenetic fish produced by retention the second polar body; and treatments of suppressing the first cell division were more promising for this purpose.
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A Comparative Study of the Karyotypes in Two Species of Mud Loaches
LI Kang,LI Yu-chneg,ZHOU Dun
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1983, 4 (1): 75-81.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1348 )   PDF (313KB) (1781)
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Paramisgurnus dabryanus are two common species of mud loaches in Hubei Province.A comparative study of the karyotypes in these two species was carried out with particular considerations on their taxonomy and evolution.The Chromosome preparations for this study were made with short-period PHA-cultured kidney cells in vitro by the air-drying method and Giemsa staining.Misgurnus anguillicaudatas has a diploid chromosome number of 100 with a fundamental arm number (NF) amounting to 128.Ilts karyotype comprises 8 pairs of metacentrics,6 pairs of submetacentrics and 36 pairs of telocentrics.Paramisgurnus dabryanus has 2n=48 with NF=64,which consists of 6 pairs of metacentrics,2 pairs of submetacentrics and 16 pairs of telocentrics.But cells containing 2n of 49 with NF of 65 were also found in some individuals collected from sha shi market.No sex chromosome was fourd in these two species.Basing upon the above mentioned results of karyotype analysis,one may well consider Misgurnus anguillicaudatus as a tetraploid fish which has been formed through a spontaneous polyploidization of chromosome complements from 2n(=50) to 4n(=100).Thus,the 2n of the primitive species should be 50.In fact,the 2n of the Japanese mud loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatas was reported to be 50,which has not been found in China.Regarding the karyotypical differences between Paramisgurnus dabryanus [2n=48(49)] and the supposedly primitive species (2n=50),it might be due to some structural rearrangements such as Robertsonian translocations among chromosomes of the primitive form,which had occurred in the course of karyotypical evolution,resulted in the reduction in chromosome number.A smallest supernumerary chromosome found in Paramisgurnus dabryanus is probably a chromosome.Further studies,however,are needed to substantiate all these propositions.
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Association of Larval and Adult Stages of Ecologically Important Caddisfly (Insecta:Trichoptera) Using Mitochondrial DNA Sequences
SHAN Lin-na,YANG Lian-fang,WANG Bei-xin
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2004, 25 (4): 351-355.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1769 )   PDF (204KB) (1889)
Identification of the larva stage of aquatic insects is one of the most important factors in biomonitoring water quality.So far,the morphological diagnostic character for many mature and early instar larvae are still lacking in China.The partial sequences of the mitochondrial COⅠ,COⅡ and tRNA gene of the adults and larvae of 4 species from Lepidostomatidae were sequenced and compared in this study.The results indicate that intraspecific divergence is <1% between the adult and larva and the interspecific divergence is 14%-24%.The study proves that the mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis is a useful tool to associate the larval and adult stages of Trichoptera,in turn;it will be valuable for health assessment of stream ecosystems.
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Research Perspective on Ecology of Urban Avian Community
CHEN Shui-hua,DING Ping,ZHENG Guang-mei,ZHUGE Yang
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2000, 21 (2): 165-169.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1903 )   PDF (235KB) (1461)
The ecology of urban avian community is an important but not much recognized field.Urbanization and the characteristics of urban habitat have drawn some ecologists attention on urban avian community,and the study contents and methodology.The effects of the generalization of urbanization on wildlife and the instrinsic value of the researches of urban avian community should be recognized.In this paper,its research progress and status were reviewed,the existing research highlights and the development in the future were discussed,and the applications of some new theories and methods to the research were also introduced.We hope the research of the ecology of urban avian community in China will develop rapidly in near future.
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Seasonal Variation of Diurnal Activity Budgets by Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) with Different Age-sex Classes in Helan Mountain
LIU Zhen-sheng,WANG Xiao-ming,LI Zhi-gang,CUI Duo-ying,Li Xin-qing
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2005, 26 (4): 350-357.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1659 )   PDF (424KB) (1871)
The daytime activity budgets of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in Suyukou National Park, Helan Mountain, were studied from November 2003 to October 2004. Blue sheeps activities were recorded by instantaneous and scan sampling methods. We observed feeding, lying, moving, standing and other behaviors from the 10th to 20th days every month with a SJ-1 Event Recorder. Data were collected from 8:00-17:00 in winter, from 7:00-18:00 in spring and autumn, and from 6:00-20:00 in summer. We used the non-parametric Wilcoxon test to compare differences in the time budgets between male and female sheep. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used to test activity budgets among age classes. A Kruskal-Wallis H test was also used to make comparisons of time budgets among ecological seasons. Feeding was the principal activity of blue sheep and accounted for 63.49±7.82% of their activities. Lying was the second principal activity, accounting for 19.32±6.79% of their activities. The remaining time was devoted to the other three activities (standing, moving, and other behaviours). The percentage of daytime spent feeding reached its highest level in February, and reached its lowest level in July. Sheep decreased their time spent lying to its highest level in July. During three seasons (spring, summer and autumn), blue sheep showed a morning and evening peak of feeding. Feeding remained at relatively higher levels (over 60%) in winter. Sheep spent a relatively higher percentage of time in other activities in winter than any other seasons. Adult and subadult sheep forage more than did kids; lambs spent more time in lying than did adult and subadult sheep; adult and subadult sheep devoted more time to moving and standing than did kids; kids spent more time standing than did adults. In February, the percentage of daytime spent feeding by male and female sheep reached its highest level. Feeding time spent by males remained a relatively constant level (<70%) in other months. However, time spent feeding by females remained at high levels (>70%) from November in 2003 to February in 2004. There was not a significant difference in the percentage of daytime spent lying between males and females. Male sheep spent more time moving than did females. Like other temperate ungulates, quality and quantity of forage plants, growth and physiological phases all contributed to the daytime activity budgets of blue sheep.
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Microsatellite Dnas and Kinship Identification of Giant Panda
ZHANG Ya-ping,WANG Wen,SU Bing,Oliver A.Ryder,FANG Zhi-yong,ZHANG He-min et al.
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1995, 16 (4): 301-306.   DOI:
Abstract ( 2287 )   PDF (169KB) (1672)
We constructed a DNA library of 150-500 bp fragments from giant panda genomic DNA digested with DpnⅡ.Ten microsatellite DNA loci were isolated and characterized by screening the library with a [32]P-labelled (CA)[15] probe.The specific primers for each of the microsatellite DNA locus were synthesized and employed to amplify DNA samples isolated from 7 specimens of panda tissue and 6 specimens of hair.Nine of the 10 microsatellite DNA loci were polymorphic in the 13 samples.Inheritance patterns of alleles at these loci accurately agree with the well recorded pedigree.The polymorphism on these loci also clarified some previously unresolved paternity.These results imply the screened microsatellite DNA loci are useful makers for the identification of kinship among giant panda.
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Flush Distance:Bird Tolerance to Human Intrusion in Hangzhou
WANG Yan-ping,CHEN Shui-hua,DING Ping
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2004, 25 (3): 214-220.   DOI:
Abstract ( 2145 )   PDF (299KB) (2666)
Flush distance,how close one can get to a bird before it flushes,reflects the adaptation of birds to human intrusion.A larger flush distance indicates a lower adaptation to human intrusion.To examine the patterns of the adaptation of birds to human intrusion and its influencing factors,9 dominant and widely-distributed species were selected among 42 species surveyed in Hangzhou,China from September 2002 to January 2003.Based on the differences in vegetation type,building index and disturbance degree,habitats were divided into 5 categories:building areas,urban woodlots,western mountains,ponds and farmlands.Four variables reflecting biological traits of birds (body size,activity height,migratory status,conspicuousness) and one habitat variable (visibility of observation point) were selected to examine their influence on flush distance.We found that:1)The degrees of human intrusions in 5 habitats were significantly different.2)There were significant differences in the flush distance of 9 species among different habitats.Generally,the flush distance was negatively associated with human intrusion.3)The analysis of bivariate correlation showed that flush distance was positively associated with body size and the visibility of observation point,but it was negatively associated with activity height.However,there was no significant association between the flush distance and the conspicuousness of birds.Our results indicated that most species had adapted to human intrusions to some extent,and that the birds with larger body,or those occurred in the habitats with higher visibility or closer to the ground had relatively lower adaptation to human intrusions.
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Taxonomy,Status and Conservation of Leaf Monkeys in China
WANG Ying-xiang,JIANG Xue-long,FENG Qing
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1999, 20 (4): 306-315.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1270 )   PDF (425KB) (2336)
Except for three species of snub-nosed monkeys and one douc,which was noted according to a skin on Hainan Island in 19th Century,five species of leaf monkeys have been recorded in China.They are Semnopithecus entellus,Trachypithecus pileatus,Trachypithecus geei (?),Trachypithecus phayrei and Trachypithecus francoisi.However,some disputes still exist concerning taxonomy on the genus and species level.In genus,Pithecus,Semnopithecus,Presbytis and Trachypithecus all were used as the genus name for leaf monkeys covering a wide range from mainland of Asia to islands of Southest Asia.Since middle of 1980s,most of West scientists separated the group into three genera:Semnopithecus for hanuman langur,Trachypithecus for species on mainland of Asia and Presbytis for the species on Sunda Islands,Southeast Asia.While many scientists in China still use Presbytis as the genus name for all Chinese leaf monkeys so far.Though Corbet et al.(1992) combined Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus because there were hybrid offspring between the two genera.In primates,nevertheless,hybrid between genera also happened in some other groups in captive.Therefore,we adopted the view of most scientists that Chinese leaf monkeys are separated into two genera:Semnopi thecus and Trachypithecus.In species,we think that Pithecus obscurus barbei described by Allen (1938)in southwestern Yunnan is a subspecies of Trachypithecus phayrei,and Presbytis leucocephalus named by T an (1957)is a subspecies of Trachypithcus francoisi.Chinese leaf monkeys demonstrate a vicarious distribution pattern from west to east,Semnopithecus entellus in Himalayas,Trachypithecus geei in Menyu and Luoyu,South Tibet,T.pileatus in Mt.Gaoligong,northwestern Yunnan,T.phayrei in West and South of Yunnan,and T.francoisi in Guangxi,Guizhou and Chongqing.All five species have been listed as the First Category in State Key Protected Wildlife List of China and in Appendix Ⅰ of CITES (except T.francoisi and T.phayrei as in Appendix Ⅱ of CITES).According to recent surveys,the population of leaf monkeys in China is:about 1000 indivi duals of S.entellus,500-600 individuals of T.pileatus,5000-6000 individuals of T.phayrei,3200-3500 individuals of T.f.francoisi,and 1200-1400 individuals of T.f.leucocephalus.Owing to no data for T.geei,its current population is unclear.Since 1980s,most of distribution areas of leaf monkeys in China have been set up as 32 natural reserves,and hunting for the monkeys has been inhibited,so that the habitats have been improved.The population tends to be stable and T.francoisi leucocephalus also shows an increase in recent years.
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Taxonomic Revision and Distribution of Subspecies of Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) in China
JIANG Xue-long,WANG Ying-xiang,MA Shi-lai
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1991, 12 (3): 241-247.   DOI:
Abstract ( 2307 )   PDF (356KB) (1420)
This paper reports the taxonomic revision and distribution of subspecies of rhesus monkey (M.mulatta) in China,based on the comparison of external and cranial characters,The rhesus monkey in China could be divided into six subspecies:M.m.mulatta,M.m.brevicaudus,M.m.littoralis,M.m.lasiotis,and M.m.vestita are valid subspecies,M.m.tcheliensis is probably a valid subspecies,too.The distribution is that (Fig.1):M.m.mulatta in the west,middle,south of Yunnan and southwest of Guangxi.M.m.brevicaudus in the Hainn Island and Wanshan Islands in Guangdong,and the islands near Hong Kong.M.m.littoralis in Fujian,Zhejiang,Anhui,Jiangxi,Hunan,Hubei,Guizhou,northwest of Gnangdong,north of Guangxi,northeast of Yunnan,east ofsichuan and south of Shaanxi.M.m.lasiotis in the west of Sichuan,northwest of Yunnan,southeast of Qinghai (Banma) M.m.vestita in the southeast of Thibet,northwest of Yunnan (Deqing),and perhaps including Yushu (Qinghai),M.m.tcheliensis in north of Henan,south of Shanxi and near Beijing.
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Classification and distribution of living Primates in Yunnan China
LI Zhi-xiang,LIN Zheng-yu
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1983, 4 (2): 111-120.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1026 )   PDF (341KB) (1265)
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A Review of Impacts of Climate Change on Birds: Implications of Long-term Studies
SHI Jian-bin ,*,LI Di-qiang,XIAO Wen-fa
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2006, 27 (6): 637-646.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1864 )   PDF (633KB) (1693)
It is generally accepted that climate has changed greatly on a global scale, and that the earth's climate has already warmed by some degrees over the past century. Ample evidence shows that there have been apparent changes in avian population dynamics, life-history traits and geographic ranges in response to global climate change. This paper briefly reviews the possible effects of climate change on avian biology and ecology all over the world, with emphasis on new findings from several long-term studies in Europe and North America, which provide unique opportunities to investigate how longterm changes in climate affect birds at both individual and population levels. The implications of such long-term studies for future bird studies in China is discussed with hope that this review can contribute to the preparation and plan for studies of climatic effects on birds in China in the future.
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On the Classification and Distribution of the Sinipercinae Fishes (Family serranidae)
ZHOU Cai-wu,YANG Qing,CAI De-lin
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    1988, 9 (2): 113-125.   DOI:
Abstract ( 994 )   PDF (436KB) (1563)
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Winter Habitat Selection by Red Deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in Helan Mountain,China
LIU Zhen-sheng,CAO Li-rong,ZHAI Hao,HU Tian-hua,WANG Xiao-ming
ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH    2004, 25 (5): 403-409.   DOI:
Abstract ( 1661 )   PDF (359KB) (2133)
Habitat selection of red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) was studied from November to December,2003 in Helan Mountain which geographically locates in 38°21′-39°22′N,105°44′-106°42′E.Fourteen ecological factors of 87 sites used by red deer and 50 random plots were measured by locating from fresh sign or dung during 25 transects surveys crossing the whole study area.These factors included vegetation types,dominant tree,slope direction,slope location,food abundance,tree density,shrub density,slope degree,altitude,snow depth,distance to water resource,distance to human disturbance,distance to bare rock,and hiding cover.Red deer preferred montane grassland and montane conifer forest,and avoided subalpine shrubland and meadow;selected for mixture habitats,but rejection of habitats dominated by Juniperus rigida,Pinus tabulaeformis and no tree;utilized the paces with slopes exposed to the sun for lower slopes,and avoided shady slopes,upper and middle slopes.Comparing usage sites and random plots,usage sites were characterized by higher shrub density,higher food abundance,lower slope gradient,shallower snow cover and approach to water resource.Most sites were located farther away from bare rock and human disturbance.Results of principal component analysis showed that the 6 principal components explained 84.89% of the total variance.The first principal component was positively related to vegetation type,tree density,shrub density,slope direction,slope degree,distance to water resource,snow depth,and altitude.
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