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Zoological Research    2018, Vol. 39 Issue (3) : 130-157     DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.019
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A new genus and three new species of miniaturized microhylid frogs from Indochina (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae)
Nikolay A. Poyarkov, Jr.1,2,*, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom3, Parinya Pawangkhanant3, Akrachai Aksornneam4, Tang Van Duong1,5, Dmitriy V. Korost6, Jing Che7,8
1 Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119234, Russia
2 Joint Russian-Vietnamese Tropical Research and Technological Center, Nghia Do, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam
3 Division of Fishery, School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000, Thailand
4 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
5 Vietnam National Museum of Nature, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam
6 Petroleum Geology Department, Geological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119234, Russia
7 State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Yunnan
650223, China
8 Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yezin Nay Pyi Taw 05282, Myanmar
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Abstract  We report on the discovery of a new genus of microhylid subfamily Asterophryinae from northern and eastern Indochina, containing three new species. Vietnamophryne Gen. nov. are secretive miniaturized frogs (SVL<21 mm) with a mostly semi-fossorial lifestyle. To assess phylogenetic relationships, we studied 12S rRNA-16S rRNA mtDNA fragments with a final alignment of 2 591 bp for 53 microhylid species. External morphology characters and osteological characteristics analyzed using micro-CT scanning were used for describing the new genus. Results of phylogenetic analyses assigned the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Siamophryne from southern Indochina. The three specimens collected from Gia Lai Province in central Vietnam, Cao Bang Province in northern Vietnam, and Chiang Rai Province in northern Thailand proved to be separate species, different both in morphology and genetics (genetic divergence 3.1%≤P≤5.1%). Our work provides further evidence for the “out of Indo-Eurasia” scenario for Asterophryinae, indicating that the initial cladogenesis and differentiation of this group of frogs occurred in the Indochina Peninsula. To date, each of the three new species of Vietnamophryne Gen. nov. is known only from a single specimen; thus, their distribution, life history, and conservation status require further study.
Keywords Vietnamophryne Gen. nov.      Vietnamophryne inexpectata sp. nov.      Vietnamophryne orlovi sp. nov.      Vietnamophryne occidentalis sp. nov.      Siamophryne      Gastrophrynoides      mtDNA      micro-CT scanning      Vietnam      Thailand      Herpetofauna      Amphibia      Biogeography      Taxonomy      Indochina     
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Fund: This work was supported by the programs of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31501843, 31622052), Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (Y4ZK111B01: 2017CASSEABRIQG002), Animal Branch of the Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, CAS (Large Research Infrastructure Funding), and Thailand Research Fund (TRF) (DBG6180001). Molecular experiments, phylogenetic analyses, specimen storage, examination and microCT-analysis were carried out with the financial support of the Russian Science Foundation (RSF 14-50-00029)
Corresponding Authors: Nikolay A. Poyarkov, Jr.,E-mail:n.poyarkov@gmail.com   
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Nikolay A. Poyarkov, Jr., Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Akrachai Aksornneam, Tang Van Duong, Dmitriy V. Korost, Jing Che. A new genus and three new species of miniaturized microhylid frogs from Indochina (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae). Zoological Research, 2018, 39(3): 130-157.
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http://www.zoores.ac.cn/EN/10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2018.019     OR     http://www.zoores.ac.cn/EN/Y2018/V39/I3/130
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